When we communicate we send and receive information from another individual or
group. There are many different ways of communication, however language may be
the most complex.
Language is uniquely human form of communication that is symbolic, involves
random accusations, is productive and is rule governed.
Researchers have outlined three criteria which outline a true language:
1. Language is Symbolic
-Such as cookie is symbol for an actual cookie you can directly refer to it even
without it being present. Words = symbols.
2. Language Involves Arbitrary (random) Association
-Things are just given random names such as if a random shape was drawn out, I
created it, so I could name it anything random.
*Not all forms of communication involve random associations such as dogs growling
3. Language is Productive
Language is designed to use a small number of components to produce &
understand a wide range of symbols = sentences. Ex: People can say a sentence
you have never hunt but since you know the words you will understand it still.
4. Language is Rule-Governed
Someone can say “helmet count pick the red” But because it does not follow the
rules it does not make sense.
Three Criteria of Language:
-A language is regular (a sentence can be reorganized and still make sense
because of rules which dictate how the words fit together)
-Language is arbitrary (random) There’s nothing about the word cat which relates
to the cat.
-Language is productive. There are limitless ways to combine words to describes
objects, situations, etc.
Hypothesis of Why Language is So Important to The Human Experience
- You talk to yourself, you have private dialogue to communicate what you will do,
- Language influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world.
The Structure of Language
Morphemes: Are the smaller units of sound that contain information. Ex: Ladebug
has two morphemes, lady and bug.
Phonemes: Are what morphemes can be broken into. Such as Drag contains four
Not all morphemes can not be used as an individual word sometimes they have to
combined with another morpheme to make sense such as TABLES (table + S) you
cannot use s by itself.
In English we can combine ch, ai, r where as k, v, t cannot be combined in other
languages it may be able to be grouped together.
Syntax: Refers to rules that govern how we put words together to formula
-> English uses “subject – verb – object” order presentation.
Semantic refers to the meaning of a sentence. A sentence can be syntax correct
but not makes no semantic meaning.
ex: Development and The Segmentation Process
Children cannot communicate except for basic needs through sounds and actions
Infants have unusual phonemic sensitivity, the ability to discriminate between all
phonemes even before they learn language. Th