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Language Module.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Language Module When we communicate we send and receive information from another individual or group. There are many different ways of communication, however language may be the most complex. Language is uniquely human form of communication that is symbolic, involves random accusations, is productive and is rule governed. Researchers have outlined three criteria which outline a true language: 1. Language is Symbolic -Such as cookie is symbol for an actual cookie you can directly refer to it even without it being present. Words = symbols. 2. Language Involves Arbitrary (random) Association -Things are just given random names such as if a random shape was drawn out, I created it, so I could name it anything random. *Not all forms of communication involve random associations such as dogs growling to another. 3. Language is Productive Language is designed to use a small number of components to produce & understand a wide range of symbols = sentences. Ex: People can say a sentence you have never hunt but since you know the words you will understand it still. 4. Language is Rule-Governed Someone can say “helmet count pick the red” But because it does not follow the rules it does not make sense. Three Criteria of Language: -A language is regular (a sentence can be reorganized and still make sense because of rules which dictate how the words fit together) -Language is arbitrary (random) There’s nothing about the word cat which relates to the cat. -Language is productive. There are limitless ways to combine words to describes objects, situations, etc. Hypothesis of Why Language is So Important to The Human Experience - You talk to yourself, you have private dialogue to communicate what you will do, etc Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis - Language influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world. The Structure of Language Morphemes: Are the smaller units of sound that contain information. Ex: Ladebug has two morphemes, lady and bug. Phonemes: Are what morphemes can be broken into. Such as Drag contains four d/r/a/g Not all morphemes can not be used as an individual word sometimes they have to combined with another morpheme to make sense such as TABLES (table + S) you cannot use s by itself. In English we can combine ch, ai, r where as k, v, t cannot be combined in other languages it may be able to be grouped together. Syntax: Refers to rules that govern how we put words together to formula sentence. -> English uses “subject – verb – object” order presentation. Semantic refers to the meaning of a sentence. A sentence can be syntax correct but not makes no semantic meaning. ex: Development and The Segmentation Process Children cannot communicate except for basic needs through sounds and actions and crying. Infants have unusual phonemic sensitivity, the ability to discriminate between all phonemes even before they learn language. Th
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