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Canada (509,861)
Psychology (5,219)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)


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Joe Kim

Attention William James - Study of attention covers wide range of topics, has been difficult to make definition of attention - “ Everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind in clear form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought…It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others, and is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state. “ - SELECTION: attending to something causes the object of selection to be thought apart from rest of objects. o Ex. You can feel the fabric of your clothes when you put it on for the first time, but fades away throughout the day - Some stimuli can trigger attention in automatic way (lights flashing) - Attention also refers to conscious ability to attend to information that is relative to our goals (whenever doing a test, focusing on where to focus attention.) - Irrelevant info (noise) makes it difficult to attend to relevant info - Sometimes, noise becomes more overwhelming then signal, and you get distracted o Ex. Finding groceries becomes more difficult in foreign market o Driving becomes more difficult when engaged in important conversation Automatic and Controlled Processes - AUTOMATIC: triggered involuntary by external events o Assumed to happen in a fast, efficient manner - CONTROLLED/CONSCIOUS: guide attention voluntarily, and consciously to objects of interest, o operate more slowly o resources for controlled processes is limited Selection and the Spotlight - Objects within the spotlight: can respond to objects faster and with greater accuracy - SPATIAL CUEING PARADIGM – subject asked to fix attention to middle box, target appears in left or right box, identify correct target position as soon as possible o Slight twist, before target appears, potential box flashes o Cue attracts attention, and if target appears in cued, reactions are faster, if it appears in the uncued, reaction is slower Filter Models - At busy places, still able to listen to a single person - Colin Cherry showed “Cocktail effect” - Gender of speaker, direction, pitch allows differential - Filter model and spotlight flower very different - Bright red flower in green grass o Spotlight says that attention enhances processing of single flower, relative to grass o
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