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Lecture

Week 9- Psychopathology 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1XX3
Professor
Joe Kim

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Week 9: Psychopathology 1 -It is often hard to define what makes behavior abnormal (differ in culture, time period, people) fixed set of criteria to broadly define abnormalities “4 D’s” 1. Deviance *** only guidelines  refers to having thoughts, emotions and behaviors that not necessarily label fall far outside the standards of what others are doing someone as having psychological disorder  also includes those who fall well below and well above the standard of group *no single D alone can 2. Distress diagnose psychological  person experiences intense negative feelings due to disorder their behavior (anxiety, sadness, despair)  exceptions: -bipolar patients in manic phase(extremely elated and larger than life) -antisocial patients (no remorse or distress) 3. Dysfunction  Behavior tends to interfere with persons ability to function properly in daily lives.  Can not longer go to work & earn living, or run household.  Often “maladaptive” behaviors => prevent individual adapting to environment. 4. Danger  Danger to oneself or another  Person engaging in risky behavior, lead to drug addiction  Person engages in violence towards others  Some engage in risky behaviors everyday  Extreme sports, office workers with bad food + no exercise -Normal vs abnormal not clear-cut, need to properly diagnose/classify disorder using guidelines from a book called; Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel, aka DSM. -DSM has 2 main functions; provides standardized criteria to aid in diagnosis 1) Categorizes & describes mental disorders clinicians have common set of criteria for applying diagnostic label to symptoms of patients. 2) Allows researchers to talk about mental disorders using common language -DSM as 2 main criteria; must be met before diagnosis, regardless of disorder 1) Disordered behavior must originate within the person, not as a reaction to external factors (ex, person crying uncontrollably- depression vs. lost family in car accident) 2) Disordered behavior must be involuntary, and person is unable to control symptoms (rules out: person dressed up for football game, or person on hunger strike for protest) -DSM attempts to group similar disorders together (assumption that similarities suggest common cause & can be similarly treated) ->but….some things change (researchers discover new information) -->leads to…..changes in criteria for diagnosis & groupings of disorders --->thus……new version of DSM is released -DSM…ONLY describes pattern of symptoms DOES NOT offer explanation for disorder or suggest treatment -BUT having label for set of abnormal behaviors only helpful if an explanation or treatment plan (DSM doesn’t have this) SO…turn to models of psychopathology=> attempt to explain causes/treatments -4 main models of psychopathology 1. Biological  Aka medical/disease model  Assumes psychological disorder result from malfunction in brain  Causes: physically damaged OR abnormal activity of chemicals in brain; neurotransmitters  Points^^: genetics, nutrition, disease, stress Medical &  Treatment: drugs, electroconvulsive shock/ brain surgery (extreme psychodynamic cases) agree mental 2. Psychodynamic disorder is  Earliest model internal problem. Disordered &  Pioneered by Freud maladaptive  Believes mental disorder is rooted in internal malfunction (like behaviors on biological) outside, are  But… instead of physical, thought to be psychological malfunction symptoms of internal problem  It is mind and processes….NOT physical brain not working properly  Attributed to maladaptive attempts to deal with strong, unconscious conflicts, => Freud believe conflicts stem from unresolved childhood issues  Treatment: no physical therapy (can only alleviate symptoms) Only psychological therapy; treatment must focus on therapy to cope with underlying stressors 3. Behavioral  Disordered behaviors & emotions symptoms on internal problem, instead behaviors/emotions are problem (external) Suggests depression arises in individuals lacking social skills (make it difficult to elicit normal positive social reinforcement from others)…may lead to lowered mood, self-blame of depression. But…depressive symptoms may elicit sympathy, attention, concern=> lead to reinforcement of symptoms  Views psychological disorders as external, overt behavior rather than an internal malfunction  Argue that… disordered behaviors established through classical & instrumental conditioning.  Contingencies, rewards, punishments=> received for actions= influence behavior  Attempt to…treat maladaptive principles from conditioning (ex. Classical conditioning treats phobias)  People may find that disordered behavior provides “rewarding” attention from others  Down sides: #1 can you really say someone who hears & responds to voices in their head has learned to behave that way? #2although treatment is often effective while inside therapist office, it does not always transfer well to other environments. #3criticized for treating people as simple reflective beings that just react to environment, rather than having ability to plan, remember, & predict things in world. Some ^ criticisms addressed by cognitive model.* Theory: -learned from helplessness -assumes depressive symptoms result from sense of helplessness about situation which subject learns to withhold responding. -inspired from animal research (1-dogs exposed to inescapable, mild electrical shocks… first dogs try to escape then accept circumstances. 2-when shocks avoidable, most continued to be passive) 4. Cognitive  Suggests mental disorder result from maladaptive/inappropriate ways of selecting/interpreting information from environment.  Psychological disorders may be due to maladaptive, negative interpretations of life events  Ex; anxious/depressed not because of what is happening around, but because of way of interpreting those events (ie; public speaking=>how you interpret a situation affects your response)  Assumes…experience & learning play important role in shaping maladaptive thinking.  Therapies… designed to identify maladaptive thinking, & change to positive experiences  Behavioral & cognitive approaches to therapy complement each other, therapies combine both thinking & behavior (aka cognitive-behavioral therapies CBT) o Cognitive therapy focuses on positive interpretations of situations o Behavior therapy focuses on seeking out positive situations & actions  Mood disorders: characterized by disturbances in emotion, includes depressed mood of depression & elevated mood of mania.  2 main types of depressed mood disorders 1. Unipolar Depression (aka Major Depression)
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