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Lecture 7

PSYCH 1XX3 Lecture 7: Form Perception I

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Joe Kim

Form Perception I UNIT 2: GESTALT PRINCIPLES Gestalt psychologists believe that the human experience should not be reduced into its elements, but rather observed as a whole.  1920s and 1930s, German psychologists  Believed that people perceive the whole stimulus rather than each individual part  A reaction to the structural approach  Motion is an emerged property of sequence of pictures  Movie example: made by flashing slightly different static pictures every second There are six Gestalt principles that help describe how we group visual input.  Gestalt principles – laws that describe how we organize visual input 1. Figure ground o The ability to distinguish an object from its background in a visual scene (ex. viewing a vase of flowers against a flowery wallpaper) o Snowman example – have a small enclosed region completely surrounded by a larger region (background). Figure would have distinct borders or edges giving it perceptible form, making it in front of background 2. Proximity o The tendency to group elements that are close together in space o Ex. daisies aren’t uniformly spaced apart but tend to have regions where they’re clustered close together in some areas and fewer in numbers in other areas o According to principle of proximity, you are more likely to group together x’s that are closer together rather than farther apart 3. Closure o Tendency to fill in gaps in a contour to perceive a whole object o Ex. although telephone poll is in front of truck, and blocking part of contour of truck, don’t perceive the object as being 2 separate pieces o Perceive it as a rectangle, even if there are gaps in it. We have a tendency to fill the gaps may be so strong may even think you see faint lines 4. Similarity o Tendency to group together elements that are physically similar o Ex. even though distance between rows might be the same as, or even less than, distance between plants within a row, group together the vegetation of same type o X’s and O’s – tend to see the columns of same elements, either all x’s or all o’s rather than grouping them xoxo 5. Continuity o The ability to perceive a simple continuous form rather than a combination of awkward forms o Seeing an X as / \ rather than a v and upside down v 6. Common fate o Tendency to group together elements that change in the same way o Ex. Tend to group elements together if they are moving together in the same direction UNIT 3: PATTERN/OBJECT RECOGNITION Bottom-up and top-down processing help guide object recognition  Bottom-up and top-down processing object recognition is guided by the features that are present in the stimulus  Object recognition – involve identifying what aspect of scene is the figure and what is the background. Once established, parts of figure are identified and grouped together into a single object  Bottom-up processing (cow): o Recognizing cow b/c has 4 legs, goes “moo” , has udder etc… o Recognizing what you see by analyzing individual features and comparing those features to things that you have in memory  Top-down processing (THE CAT and B/13): o Object recognition is guided by your own beliefs or expectations o THE CAT – second letters in both words are physically identical, but can readndTHE CATthb/c are influenced by context o B/13: 2 and 10 symbols are physically same both read as B/13 b/c of context (same as cat) The priming effect can be an outcome of top-down processing  Experiment measures how fast a participant can read a word that is flashed on a screen  Priming effect: an effect in which we respond more quickly and accurately if we expect or have recent experience with particular stimulus  Bidirectional activation: processing occurs in both directions at once 1. Geon theory:  Suggests that we hav
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