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Lecture 12

PSYCH 1XX3 Lecture 12: Psychological Disorders II

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Joe Kim

Psychological Disorders II UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION  DSM only describes a pattern of symptoms, doesn’t offer explanation or suggest treatment The etiology directs us to effective treatment methods  Etiology – the cause, or set of causes of a disorder  Factors can be grouped into diff models, according to how they cause disorder  4 models – biological, behavioural, environmental etiological, cognitive UNIT 2: THE BIOLOGICAL MODEL Twin studies determine whether a disorder has a genetic link. Further study is required to determine how specific genes cause disorder.  Biomodel – assumes that a psychological disorder results from malfunction in the brain (medical model)  Concordance: 2 twins share a traits heritability can be estimated by comparing concordance rates of identical and fraternal twins  Specific genes: studies can be contradictory and inconclusive. Far from discovering how specific genes develop and maintain psychological disorders Neurotransmitter activity is part of the etiology of psychopathology, but it is not the whole story.  Abnormal levels of neurotransmitter activity in the brain seems to be linked with psychological disorders (ex. depression shows low levels of dopamine)  Serotonin of depression and anxiety  Drug therapies aim to alter neurotransmitter levels back to norm have varied and unpredictable success Abnormal brain structures may produce disorder, but correlation is not causation  Ex. patients with various anxiety disorders where found to have hyperactive amygdale o Amygdala involved in fear and emotional processing  Correlation does not equal causation  Possible that reason people had hyperactive amygdalae was because they were anxious, and not the other way around UNIT 3: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL The environmental model considers the effects of environmental factors on causing disorder.  Epidemiological studies find that depression is twice as common in females than males o Women face more adversity than men  It is conceivable that being at higher risk for sexual abuse or living in poverty may lead to a higher risk of depression
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