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Psychology (5,220)
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Joe Kim (1,028)

Psych 1XX3, 2 April 2013 2 April.docx

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Joe Kim

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Psych 1XX3 4 April, 2013 Psychopathology 2 Treatment in Popular Culture The 5 Stages of Grief: A Universal Course for Dealing with Death Denial Anger Bargaining Acceptance Depression Matching learning styles leads to better grades Visual Audition Tactile Well intentioned theory No research supports them However, everyone knows about this Psychological Treatments The 4 Ds Deviance Distress Dysfunction Danger Last week Synaesthesia Not a disorder Huntington’s It’s a disorder Biological causes Genetic predisposition Major Depression It’s a disorder DSM – 4 is what is used to treat a psychological disorder Open to the general public to give opinions about what disorders should be included in it Psychodynamic model Sigmund Freud “The Couch” Struggle with the unconscious mind Causes: Childhood Trauma He believed that there was a biological bases to it Psychoanalysis = $$$ Effective ??? Under Debate Cognitive Model Maladaptive processes The way we think is what causes the disorder Behaviorist Model Conditioning can be a treatment Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy How do you think about yourself and others? How do actions affect your thoughts (Behavior)? Biological – Malfunctions in brain activity Psychosurgery – Biological approach gone wrong 1940s and 1950s Frontal lobe = Judgment Amygdala = Emotion Disconnect midbrain from frontal lobe Treatment = Cut brain in half and swish it around Became dull and weren’t angry!!! 30 min procedure Many people were doing this They went to mental institution Electroconvulsive Therapy Controversial treatment Seems to work Relieves depression symptoms Restoring the balance with drugs = Quick fix Addictions Side effects Prevalence of genetic markers by region Genetic marker prevalence Mood disorder prevalence Cultural differences Some cultures expect you to be happy all the time so you might think that there’s something wrong with you if you’re not happy Cultural approaches to happiness and sadness Depression is a stress-related condition Adaptive function ??? Diversity of options – Which is best? Biological Psychodynamic Behaviorist Cognitive The label of mental disorder Strong influence on how others interact with you On being sane in insane places Got jail sentence Decides to do his sentence in a mental institution Web Module Notes Psychopathology 2 Module 1: Schizophrenia  Patients diagnosed with this illness do not have specific symptoms.  This is different from the other mental disorder mentioned in last module.  Combination of different symptoms: Positive, Negative, and Catatonic Positive symptoms:  Increased presentation in schizophrenics patients 3 different positive symptoms: 1. Disorders of thought - Individuals’ train of thoughts maybe lose in association - Ideas are loosely related to each other I.e. started off with the idea of the word: Fruit, and lost track of his original intent. 2. Delusions - Unusually, fragments - Irrational or unsupported by external evidences - (In common delusions) Often involved the individuals’ in persecuting by others or the events or object has special relation or significances with individual I.e. person may think that the television character is talking to he or she directly, thoughts insertion 3.Hallucinations - Perceptions of things that do not exist -Auditory hallucinations are more common than visual hallucinations -Hears voices in her or his head, commenting on individuals behaviors or giving orders (Negative comments in general) Positive behaviors increase in frequency in individuals with schizophrenia.  Negative Symptoms:  Decreased presentation in schizophrenics  Less engage with the outside world  More involved in their fantasy and own world  May lead to a grown astringent within the family and co-worker  Emotional experience might change. Affect: emotional responsiveness  Catatonic Symptoms:  Severity differs widely from one case to another cases  Odd movement behaviors not associated with environment (i.e. extreme rigidity)  Maintain a single posture for a long time  Waxy flexibility, can be moved into variety of positions but it will required them to return to the original position Catatonic excitement: o Repeated motor movement, unrelated to the environment around the person Subtypes of Schizophrenia (DSM recognized) Based on the pattern of symptoms that dominate the clinical presentation/ Paranoid (Most familiar subtype):  Noble Prize winner: John Nash o Dominate symptoms: delusions or auditory hallucinations with a single theme. o Apart from the delusion, the individual’s thinking may be relatively coherent, with no disturbed affect, or psychomotor disturbances. o Individual often shows anger or anxiety related to the disturbing content of the delusions. Catatonic: o Dominant symptoms: psychomotor disturbances o Include: Catatonic stupor, excitement, alternation between the two o Stereotyped postures or mannerisms, together with the waxy flexibility. Disorganized: o The most severe and disruptive among all types of schizophrenia o Incoherent speech and thoughts, very loose associations, disorganized behavior o Individual shows flat or inappropriate affect, incoherent and fragmentary delusions o Psychomotor disturbance are marked and profound social withdrawal. Some cases of schizophrenia do not fit into any of the established subtypes. Researchers can disagree about the appropriate characteristics that define a specific subtype. The subtype- undifferentiated schizophrenia is used to categorize cases, which do not fit into any of the other 3 categories. Causes of schizophrenia  Diathesis stress hypothesis o Develop when there is a genetic predisposition for the disorder and some environmental stress that triggers the symptoms. o Identical twins have a higher chance o More common in biological relatives of adoptees than in non- related members from their adoptive families However, some researcher believe that it is abnormalities in brain structure or changes in levels of neurotransmitters. Treatment  Chronic care was the very first treatment available  1960s drug treatment was available. Pharmacological treatment  most common therapy  unpleasant side effects are really common which can affect compliance rate Psycho-therapy  Not help very much in treating the major symptoms of schizophrenia  May help patients to develop better or new coping skills o Once drug have relieved their symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy  Taught how to think about the psychosis in ways that help to better cope  Learn to identify and avoid triggers  Learn positive ways to react to these triggers  Used to encourage patients to comply with medicinal instructions through rewarding adherence  Avenue to address environmental factors that nay have triggered the illness Family Therapy  To educate family how to interact in positive and supportive manner  Learn about schizophrenia and how to react in episodes Module 2: Dissociative Disorder  Dissociative disorders include symptoms that distance the individual, either physically or psychologically, from anxiety producing events or memories Dissociative identity disorder (a.k.a. multiple personality disorder) Primary symptom: A single individual manifests several distinct personalities, or alters.  At any given time, one of these alters dominates, taking charge of the person’s behavior  The presenting personality, the one that comes out for treatment, know littl
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