Class Notes (834,991)
Canada (508,850)
Psychology (5,208)
PSYCH 1XX3 (1,104)
Joe Kim (1,023)
Lecture

Psych-Evolution 1.docx

2 Pages
44 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1XX3
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Winter

Description
Evolution 1 Adaptations  Adaptations- are biological traits that help an individual to survive and reproduce in its habitat  Adaptations perform a specific function that make an organism better suited to its environment  They are used during tasks organisms face when interacting with the physical world.  Example: your eyes enable you to recognize and respond effectively to things around you by detecting and analyzing the reflected light.  Perceptual processes and behaviours are also biological adaptations. Psychological Adaptations  “Higher” mental processes- Selective attention, memory encoding, memory retrieval and word recognition; these all refer to tasks that the mind needs to accomplish to do its job= the adaptive functions of the mind.  The adaptive functions that are served by our minds evolved like all other adaptations- through natural selection. Evolution by Natural Selection  Adaptations emerge in development as a result of the activation of relevant genes in interaction with relevant aspects of the environment.  Natural Selection- differential survival and reproduction of organisms as a result of the heritable differences between them.  Natural Selection was discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace and is one of the 4 basic mechanisms of evolution; the others being mutation, genetic drift and migration. Three Essential Components: 1. Individual differences- within any population, there is variation among individuals for any given characteristic, and these differences affect individuals’ chances of surviving and reproducing, causing differential reproduction. 2. Differential reproduction- some individuals will have more offspring than others. The traits that give rise to differential reproduction have a genetic basis, meaning they are heritable. 3. Heritable- the offspring of successful reproducers will resemble their parents with respect to these variable characteristics. Selective Transmission  Over a successive generation of a species with a specific trait, there will be selective transmission of the heritable parental traits.  This is because of the specific characteristics that are best adapted for survival and reproduction are going to be reproduced at higher rates.  Eventually the entire population of that species, in that area, will have that trait. Natural Selection in the Wild  Stabilizing Selection- selection against any sort of departure from the species-typical adaptive design.  This type of selection is usually what researchers observe in the wild; this sort of selection tends to keep traits stable over generations.  In some cases where there has been a significant change in the environment, then selection favours traits that are not typical, and evolutionary change can be observed, sometimes quite rapidly.  Example: the evolution of beak shape and size in one particular species of Darwin’s finches, the Medium Ground- Finch which lives on Daphne Island in the Galapagos. In 1977, a severe drought hit the island and decimated the vegetation; the small seeds were quickly eaten up , leaving only large, tough seeds that the finches usually didn’t
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1XX3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit