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Multi Sensory Integration Lecture Notes

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Multi Sensory Integration – March 28 Biological Levels of Analysis Neuroscience: Food reward hardwired into brain - Snacking mood – going to take something sweet or salty or fatty; not just satisfying from caloric point of you, but also triggers reward response - Experiment o 3 groups of rat o exposed to three types of idets o 1. Standard lab rat chow – nutritionally balanced healthy food, unlimited acces to food, don’t have to scavenge to have calories in day – come to equilibrium, eat amount of calories they need and they’re heavier than domestic rats, they learn o 2. Unlimited access to healthy food for 23 hours, for 1 hour, given calorie dense food (sweet, salty, junk food) unlimited o 3. 23 hours access to buffet of junk food, 1 hour to healthy nutritional food  obese, not able to control selves, keep eating, nonstop – access to sweet/salty food is very rewarding  willing to do more to get food  grid of electric shocks – rats exposed selves to shocks in order to reach food - some of our preferences are directly coded into brain o choices when to eat, how much to eat – governed by nature Developmental Issues: Pre and post natal factors for weight regulation - how might genes and factors before and after you’re born affect how much you eat? - WWI, blockade of food – low food supply in the Netherlands o Up until this point; was a literate, well fed country o Suddenly for one year period – famine o Tracked whether babies were different who were born this year o Typical – 2400 calories a day o Now – 400-800 calories per day o Huge impact on babies born – exposed to intrauterine environment where there was limited access to calories o When babies were born, food was again readily available o Those babies born during this period – have greater rate of diabetes or obesity o Fundamentaly shifted --- o AFTER BORN - Now – more overweight people than underweight people  very different from human history o Enough people in this world who have functionally unlimited calories; can afford to be over weight - Geography – where do you grow up? o Developed marketing economy – more likely to be overweight Evolution: Taste preferences and access to calories - There used to be no food storage – hope that you would come across food - Came across dense source of calories – rewarding o We have an innate preference toward sweet/salty food - Rich countries now have unlimited access to calories - Over 10 000 years – preferences for these foods still have not changed Social, Cognitive, Learning Influences - not just governed by how you feel physically – other factors that determine how much you eat - Experiment – Social Factors o Waiting room – two people o On table, plate of warm freshly baked cookies, smell amazing o 3 oclock in the afternoon, feeling hungry o Will you eat cookies? How many? o Other person is a confederate/experimenter (secretly) o Experimenter in room might eat a cookie, 3 cookies, half a cookie – what will you do? o You will likely do the same as the experimenter o Your decision will be influenced by the “social norm” set by the other person - Portion Sizes o Adjusting portion sizes o Affect how much you eat o Experiment  Movie goers offered free popcorn  Some were offered small bucket  Others were offered large bucket  Asked before – how hungry do you feel? Rated on a scale  Rated same hunger on average  Asked after – how did you feel about popcorn, how much do you think you a
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