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Canada (511,223)
Psychology (5,220)
PSYCH 1XX3 (1,109)
Joe Kim (1,028)
Lecture

Sound Production

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1XX3
Professor
Joe Kim

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Psych 1XX3 LECTURE EXTRA NOTES *Sound is our interpretation of waves Bats and Fish conversation –2000 hz Basilar membrane:  • contains hearing receptors • sounds of different frequencies are processed along different areas in the basilar  membrane • Shortest in reptiles, longer in birds, longest in mammals o Mammals can discriminate frequencies over 10 000hz • The longer the basilar membrane—the wider the range of sounds that you can hear Sound: • Travels in waves • Initiated by vibrating objects • Initiated by sudden bursts of air • Air molecules surrounding the source of the sound are forced to move▯causing  moving air particles producing sound Eardrum: • Responds to air pressure changes • A band of compressed articles causes eardrum inwards • A band of less dense articles causes eardrum outwards Amplitude: • Higher waves correspond to louder sounds • Loudness is measured in logarithmic scale—dB increase Frequency: • Pitch  • More compressed sine waves▯high frequency▯high pitched sound o LOW PITCH: low frequency and a long wavelength Timbre: • Complexity of the sound • Purity • Whole tone:  • Overtones: • Final sound▯mixture of fundamental tone and overtones o Instrument combinations of frequencies and overtones sound different to us Ear: External▯incoming channels of air pressure • Pinna: your outer ear▯collects sound waves and directs them along the ear canal • Ear canal: narrows as it moves towards eardrum—it amplifies the incoming sound waves • Eardrum: thin membrane vibrating at the frequency of the incoming sound wave and  forms the back wall of the ear canal Middle a▯ mplified air pressure so it can be detected as changes in fluid by the inner ear • Begins on the other side of the eardrum • Connects to 3 ossicles: o Anvil o Hammer o Stirrup • Vibrating ossicles are about 20x bigger than the oval window’s area to which they  connect • Create a lever system that amplifies the vibrations even more • Additional amplification is necessary because the changes in air pressure detected by the  external ear are about to be converted to waves in the fluid­filled inner ear Inner▯convert to neural impulses • Vibrating oval window connects to the cochlea of the inner ear • The cochlea is a fluid­filled tube (35mm) that is coiled o Contains neural tissue necessary to transfer changes in fluid to neural impulses of  audition Oval Window ▯ a small opening in cochlea • When it vibrates—the fluid becomes displaced Round Window • Located at the other end of the cochlea • Accommodates for the movement of the fluid by bulging in and out  Basilar Membrane • Runs the length of the cochlea • When basilar membrane is pushed down—the fluid in the cochlea causes the round  window to bulge out • When basilar membrane is forced up—th
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