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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Neuroscience 1

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McMaster University
Christopher Teeter

From Neurons to Thought and Behaviour • Matrix – computers stimulating our brains so we see our environment as real and machine use that to their advantage • Impossible for us to know if what we are experiencing our environment for real/our brains are in a jar being stimulated by computers – “brain in a jar” 1. The Brain Constructs Your World 2. Hebbian Learning Provides a Mechanism for Neural Coding 3. Prior Learning interacts with a collaborative functioning process across brain regions • Brain is a metabolically costly organ – body keeps it functioning because it keeps us functioning • Neurons are communicating cells • 3 types:  Sensory – PNS to CNS  Motor – CNS back out  Interneuron – only in CNS and bridge gap between sensory and motor neurons • Simple neural circuit – knee-jerk reflex – can’t consciously control it – no info going to the brain • Heuristics and Prior Knowledge • A bat and ball cost $1.10 and the bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does each item cost – should be $1.05 and $0.05 but heuristics cause us to say $1.00 and $0.10 automatically which is incorrect 1. The Brain Constructs Your World • Visual Top Down Processing – picture of a mom selling last shovel but at first look it looks like mom is pole dancing • Audio Top Down Processing – language stream segmentation problem – don’t know where breaks are between words • As you gain more experience you begin to recognize splits between words andyour brain puts together sentences that makes sense – environment dictates what you perceive is happening – Ex. “how to recognize speech” is what you heard but teacher said “How to wreck a nice beach” • Top down processing meets sensory processing – checkerboard illusion – see A square and B square as different but they are the same colour • What is in your environment may not actually what you experience and may be different than what
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