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Psychopathology 2 Lecture.doc

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McMaster University
Christopher Teeter

Psychopathology 2 Psychological Treatments • Keep in mind evidence-based practice and variance • 5 stages of grief – dealing with your death/death of another person: • Denial • Anger • Bargaining • Depression • Acceptance • Learning styles: • Teaching style should match learning style – optimal learning • Visual – diagrams and images • Auditory - Texts and listening • Kinesthetic - Getting up and moving around • Connection between 5 stages of grief and learning styles: • No evidence to support either of those things • People don’t go through all stages of grief/different order/skip stages • Can maybe suggest which learning style you fit into better – no actual bearing to how you will learn – ability to learn driven by something else – can learn just as well if you are presented with info in a different way • With psychological disorder and treatment – need good solid scientific evidence to support • With synesthesia, Huntington’s and Depression there is a lot of variance within a mental disorder and between disorders • Deviance within a disorder – large spectrum – hard to treat • When making DSM 5, they received 12,000 emails and letters – all different disorders and symptoms • Models of Psychopathology: • Psychodynamic – psychological • Behaviourist – how behaviours are driven • Cognitive – how thoughts are driven • Biological – something in the brain is not working properly • Psychodynamic • Freud • Strong unconscious conflicts within the mind • Treatment focusses on stress management for coping with symptoms • Ice berg analogy  Conscious is what we see  Pre-conscious  Unconscious – affects behaviour without us realizing it  Id – unconscious (devil)  Super ego – preconscious – moral guide (angel)  Ego – all 3 – does the best it can to balance them • Trauma in childhood causes these behavioural issues • Treatment: person lying on the couch – therapist analyzes what person says  Goal is to take control of id and balance internal conflicts – difficult because it has defense mechanisms to prevent this • Behavioural • Focus on behaviour • Disorders are the ext. overt behaviours • Therapy established through conditioning and generalization • Need to re-condition – take learned stimulus-response contingency and change it  Ex. clip from office – Dwight conditioned to receive and altoid when hearing a computer sound • Limitations:  Focusing on behaviour only – not deeper mechanism driving it (is there something else affecting how you interpret stimuli)  Can disorder all be explained by reinforcement (ex. hallucinations and delusions) • Cognitive • Disorders result from maladaptive selection and interpretation of stimuli • Therapies focus on positive interpretations of situations • Cognitive approach – thought patterns are central to personality • Behavioural approach – a person’s behaviour is their personality • Combined to form cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) • Thoughts affect feelings which affect actions – affects your thoughts the next time you encounter same situation (cycle)  Ex. having a bad day and friend walks right past you – how you interpret the situation affects how you will respond the next time you see them
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