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Online Lecture - Form Perception 1 & 2.doc

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Christopher Teeter

Notes - IntroPsych 1XX3 - Term 2 nd Week of March 2 , 2014 Module 7: Form perception 1 Gestalt Principles Example: perception of movement experienced when watching a movie made by flashing slightly different static pictures every second. • No continuous movement in these frames but we still perceive continuous movement as we watch it • Motion is an emergent property of the sequence of pictures Gestalt Principles: Laws that describe how we organize visual input Six Gestalt Principles: 1. Figure-ground – most fundamental principle for form perception, ability to determine what aspect of a visual scene is part of the object itself and what is part of the background. Example: viewing a vase of flowers against flowery wallpaper Example: small region is completely surrounded by a larger region. Figure tends to have distinct borders or edges that give it a perceptible form is perceived as being in front of the background – vase/face, arrows/men 2. Proximity – helps with grouping, says that elements that are close together in space tend to belong together Example: field of daisies, we see them as a cluster of daisies, not a big & small group 3. Closure – refers to the fact that if there are gaps in the contours of a shape, we tend to fill in those gaps and perceive a whole object 4. Similarity – tendency for us to group together elements that are physically similar Example: Grouping vegetables of same type together in a field Example: Grid made of Xs & Os. You group together the columns of Os and column of Xs rather than rows of XOs 5. Continuity – lets us perceive a simple, continuous form rather than a combination of awkward forms Example: Letter X is seen as 2 continuous lines that cross in the middle rather than 2 Vs 6. Common Fate – the idea that things that change in the same way should be grouped together Example: Group of fish that are moving together in the same direction are grouped together Example: Seeing camouflaged animal when it moves Pattern/Object Recognition • People tend to see what they expect to see (picture of costume ball vs. Marineland) • Processes of object recognition: ♦ Bottom-Up Processing: Object recognition is guided by the features that are present in the stimulus You recognize what you see by analyzing the individual features and comparing those features to things with similar features you have in memory. ♦ Top-Down Processing: Object recognition is guided by your own beliefs or expectations • Priming experiments: people identify words on a flashcard faster if they’re told ahead of time what category the word belongs to – processing of words is more efficient if participant is primed to expect a word from a certain category • There is bi-directional activation where processing occurs in both directions at once. The featurs of an object in combination with our expectations guides object recognition • Theories of object recognition: 1. We have 36 different geons – simple geometric forms such as cones and spheres. Using these, it’s possible to recognize over 150 million different objects – icecream cone is just a cone and sphere Limitation: Things like faces and crumpled pieces of paper don’t necessarily resemble geons but we can still recognize them. Some people with brain damage can identify tool but not different fruits. 2. Template theory – we store many dif
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