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Lecture 11

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Jennifer Ostovich

Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development What do children know, and when? - Start describing cogD as Piaget saw it. - The four stages o Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) o Preoperational (2-7 years) o Concrete operations (7-11 years) o Formal operations (11+ years) - Characteristics o Qualitative differences between stages  Kids have big “aha” moments; they learn new basic truths about adapting to the world around them  The approach to though changes to their environment  Piaget says they can only develop in his stages; they CANNOT skip any stages o Invariant order  All the cogD unfolds in an almost “innate” way; your mind cannot grasp the second concept without understanding the first one o Universal  Every kids in every culture will develop in this stage o Ages are approximate  One of the things that DOES change in kids will the age they develop theses stages  Certain experiences required for unfolding of cognitive skills  Piaget says children construct their understanding through experiences and they are required for kids to develop cognitively - Sensorimotor stage (0-2 yeas) o How did Piaget study infant intelligence?  Longitudinal  Naturalistic observation  Sat around and watched kids playing.  Experimental manipulation  Made experiments; often by blocking goals o Eg: cutting of the view of the baby’s toy and see what the baby does. At different stages of a baby’s age, they react differently (exp testing for object permanence)  HOWEVER  Small sample size o He used his 3 kids  Genetic similarity o His kids => could be smarter than the regular average kid  Bias o Him and his wife were testers => bias involved o Development of problem solving skils  Six substages describe how infants go from being “reflexive” to “reflective” thinkers  Substage 1: Reflex Activity (birth to 1 month) o Hardest stage for Piaget o Do babies have thoughts? Where does adult thinking start? o What are they born knowing?  Piaget says they are born with a whole bunch of reflexes o “Mindless: exercising of reflexes  Babies know to feel around for a nipple to suck, using their checks  They know to grasp a finger really tight  However, babies aren’t perfect when feeding; it takes them a little while to get good at it (shows cognition at early life)  Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months) o Babies discover that certain actions they do will make them feel better  Eg: they flail around their hands and somehow it accidentally touches their lips and they like that feeling so now they want to do it again! o Use of reflex-based schemes to replicate interesting body-related events o Sometimes babies discover something and they just keep doing it (eg: sucking fingers)  Doing it in itself is active; it’s no longer a passive thing. They’re acting as if they WANT to suck the thumb o Piaget says at about 4 months old, they discover objects (eg: the mobile over their crib)  Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) o Infants are discovering, by chance, they like obj
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