Class Notes (806,874)
Canada (492,493)
Psychology (4,968)
PSYCH 2AA3 (402)

9 - Socio-Emotional Development.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Jennifer Ostovich

Socio-Emotional Development Self-Understanding  Definitions o Self  who and what you are o Self-understanding  our cognitive understanding of who and what we are, and how it changes over time Self-understanding in Infancy  What would self-understanding look like in a pre-verbal infant?  Mirror technique research o See if babies recognize themselves o If yes  they have a concept of self, they are a “thing” o By age 2, 80% of all babies recognize themselves  9-12 Months  Don’t touch nose  15-17 Months  Increase in nose touching – ¼ of babies  Don’t care about spot? Don’t know it’s themselves?  18-20 Months  Huge increase in nose touching - 75% o Originally used in non-human consciousness research  Chimps in the wild, placed in room with a mirror  First they thought reflection was a different chimp  After a few days they knew it was themselves, use the mirror to help groom themselves, see parts of themselves they couldn’t  Put them to sleep and put red dye on their face, when they see this in mirror what will they do? Will they try to rub their face = relate to themselves, will they rub the mirror?  They first stared at themselves more interestedly, then rubbed their face = understand their sense of self  Piaget? o Sensorimotor stage – substage 6 because they have symbolic representation o Cognitive and mental representations of self Self-understanding in Childhood Five characteristics 1. Activities-oriented  Central component of self-hood in young kids  “I ride a bike” 2. Concrete  “I know my ABCs”, “I live in a big house” 3. Focus on physical and material  “I’m different from Jennifer because I have brown hair and she has Blonde hair”, “I’m different because I am taller and have a bicycle” 4. Centered  Are you good, bad, or both?  Have to choose one, don’t like the concept of being more than one thing, same with their ideas of others 5. Unrealistically positive  Actual vs. ideal selves  “I know all my ABCs” – they don’t  “I’m never scared” – unrealistic  Piaget?  Pre-operational  Centered and no abstract thoughts Self-understanding in Middle to Late Childhood  Shift in internal characteristics o Preferences, personality o Things that aren’t directly observable o Shift from “I have brown hair and a bike” to “I am smart and popular”  Decentered o Being more than one thing o Shift from “I am never scared” to “I am sometimes scared”  Spontaneous use of social references o Social groups become important o “I am Catholic and a girl guide”  More realistic o Actual vs. ideal selves o “I’m not a good speller but I wish I was” o Social comparison – have a theory of mind/interest in other people  Piaget? o Concrete operations Self-understanding in Adolescence  Increasingly abstract self-descriptions  Highly self-conscious o Pre-occupation with self-understanding  Increased ability to distinguish between actual and ideal selves o Several ideal selves o Addition of “possible selves”  Fluctuations in self-understanding o Inconsistencies  Eventual integration into whole concept of self o General theory of self survives inconsistencies o Identity is formed  Piaget? o Formal operations o Think in hypotheticals Understanding Others Ties to Cognitive Development  Developmental course shows changes in focus from 1. Outer to inner characteristics 2. Observation to inference 3. Definite to qualified 4. Egocentric viewpoint to a general viewpoint People are not Objects  Three basic differences between people and objects: 1. Interactivity  Positive interactions with others, know the consequences, develop skill at reading body language, facial cues, etc. 2. Intentionality  People have motives and plans, who to trust, people don’t always do/say what they feel 3. Social scripts  Rules for engaging in any type of interaction, school script = pay attention and be quiet, hanging out with friends = socialize and be friendly Describing Others Three Step Model (Livesley & Bromley, 1973)  Descriptions focus on… 1. External features (up to ages 6-8)  “Goes to our school, has brown hair, he is tall, he has a brother”  Physical and material descriptions  Unable to for a permanent trait description (he was bad yesterday, but is good today) 2. Internal features (beginning ages 7-8)  Inner characteristics  How good, mean, bad, etc. someone is  Use some qualifiers in descriptions  Physical descriptions used to highlight their inner characteristics “he smells and is nasty, has no sense of humour, always fighting, he has brown hair and cruel eyes, he has sister
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2AA3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.