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11 - Temperament & Attachment.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Temperament & Attachment Temperament  Inborn predisposition to behave in a certain way o Involve how you react to new things o What is your usual mood (eg. happy, angry) o Do you like social interaction or like being alone o Do you have regular sleep/eat schedule  First major classification system (Thomas & Chess, 1977) o Easy baby  40% of the baby  dream babies (predictable & easy to take care)  Eat on regular schedule, fine with new things. Eg. cat o Difficult baby  10% of all babies  Hate new things, new change = cry  More piercing cry than the other 2 groups, irritable, spit food, no regular sleep/eating cycle, eventually accept the new things when they get used to it o Slow to warm up baby  15% of all babies  Will accept new things, but not at first, takes a while to warm up to new things  Effects of environment o If you have a difficult baby be kind and patient, eventually the baby gets better o Often parents take it personally and they punish difficult babies, then they grow up to be temperamental o Parenting can’t change entire temperament but can change behaviour and help them develop in a more positive way  Correlation with adult personality? o Baby’s temperament can predict adulthood personality Stability of temperament (big five) 1. Activity level o High activity baby  become adults who are extraverts o Adults go out and do lots of things, active 2. Positive emotionality o See new things will go out and check it out extraversion and agreeableness o Like meeting new people and get along well 3. Negative emotionality o React to new things/people with anger, fussiness, and crying  neuroticism o Not very emotionally stable, don’t react well to changes or scary situations 4. Inhibition/anxiety o May be seen in slow to warm up baby, you withdraw when exposed to new things  introversion, neuroticism, and openness o Like to be alone, less likely to experience new things 5. Effortful control (aka task persistent) o Ability to stay focused and on take, self-regulated, have high self-control; adapt well in school, make good friends  conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness o Do well in school, likes new experiences  Marshmallow test  give kids a treat, leave them with it, having told if they don’t eat it they can have more later, kids that pass marshmallow test will do well in all aspects of life than those that don’t wait  Big five  adult traits stable after 30 years old Attachment Theoretical background  Psychoanalysis o Attachments occurs through satisfaction of Id impulses o Sucking = attached to moms breast through breastfeeding o Moms behaviour during breastfeeding (cuddling, cooing) = babies personalities develop well and become attached  Learning theory o Attachment occurs through satisfaction of hunger o Primary drive (hunger) must be satisfied (food) o Mom supplies food is the secondary enforcer = attached to breast/attached to mom  Debunking learning theory o Mom gives you more than just food = love and comfort o Harlow (1958)  Separated monkeys from real mother and placed with surrogate moms (fake monkeys)  One provides love and comfort but no food (all hours of the day)  One provides food but no comfort and love (less than 1 hours a day)  Only times monkey leaves love and comfort mom is to eat  very attached to love and comfort mom  Terrycloth mom can’t respond and offer anything but is chosen over food mom o Applying Harlow to humans  Unresponsive moms vs. responsive dads (Schaffer & Emerson, 1964)  Stronger attachment to dad if he is more responsive (usually more attached to mom if both responsive)  Cognitive development approach o Importance of being able to recognize difference between mom and others o Importance of object permanence in attachment formation o Importance of ability to form mental representations of mom in how attachment is expressed o Eventually create a cognition of mom and are comforted by that and know that mom will return when she’s gone  Evolutionary approach o Attachment is adaptive, born to develop, if we don’t essentially we will die o The ability to make bonds with people is a human’s natural ability o Biological preparedness  Instinctual signaling by baby elicits parental care  Sensitive parental responding leads to mutual bond  We survive because we make signals and respond Modern attachment theory  Affectional bond o Long enduring tie with the other person as a unique entity and irreplaceable  mom and baby  Attachment o Type of affectional bond where there’s love but also a sense of safety and security bond in the person you love  other person is your saf
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