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psych 2aa3 1.1 tbook.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

PSYCH 2AA3 – TEXTBOOK 1.1 Historical views on children and childhood - Plato o believed that experience could not be the source of knowledge because human senses are too fallible. o He argued that children are born with an innate knowledge of many concrete objects. Their experiences simply trigger knowledge they already have. - Aristotle o denied the existence of innate knowledge, believing instead that knowledge is rooted in perceptual experience. o Children acquire knowledge piece by piece based on the information provided by their senses. - Locke o The human infant is a tabula rasa aka blank slate. o Experience mouls the infant into a unique individual o Parent should instruct, reward and discipline young children, gradually relaxing their authority as children grow. - Jean-jacques Rousseau o Newborns are born with an innate sense of justice and morality that unfolds naturally as the child grows. o As this unfolds, childen move through the developmental stages: infancy, childhood and adolescence o Parents should be responsive and receptive to children’s needs. o Shared view with Plato that children are born with knowledge. Origins of a new science - During industrial revolution, families moved to cities, kids and parents worked in factories, it was dangerous for children - Reformers worked hard to change laws, get more kids in school - Darwin o came out with his theory of evolution o His focus on the origin of species started interest in the origins of human behaviour in children. o Some scientists of the day noted similarities between Darwin’s description if o evolutionary change in species and age-related changes in human behaviour. o Prompted scientists including Darwin to write the baby biographies - Stanley Hall o Generated theories based on evolutionary theory, conducted studies to determine age trends in children’s beliefs and feelings about a range of topics - Alfred Binet o Begun to devise to first mental tests - Freud o Suggested that experiences of early childhood seemed to account for patterns of behaviour in adulthood - John B Watson o Begun to write and lecture on the importance of reward and punishment for child- rearing practices. - Canadian research o Dates from the late 1800s o Important figure is James Mark Baldwin.  Known for research at Uof T  Set up the first psych lab in Canada which began research in 1891.  Felt that a theoretical basis for experimentation was important and baby biographies were too focused on observation.  He performed experimental research o CPA founded in the late 1930s - In 1933 society for research in child development was formed .(SRCD) - It is now the main organization for child development researchers. - Progress in developmental psychology was stopped by WW2, ppl abandoned research to join the war effort - After the war women became more prominent in the CPA - Psychology grew and by the 1950s and 1960s, developmental psych was thriving. - Applied developmental science o Uses developmental research to promote healthy development, particularly for vulnerable children and families. o Some scientists with this interest ensure that the consideration of policy issues and options is based on factual knowledge derived from research. o Others contribute by serving as advocates for children o Others create programs that work 1.2 Foundational Theories of Child Development - In child development a theory is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain and make predictions about development. - Theory leads to a hypothesis. - Five theoretical perspectives have guided most research on children and their development - The Early Biological Perspective o Development proceeds according to a biological plan o Maturational Theory  Proposed by Arnold Gesell  Child dev’p reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body.  Experience matters little  Encouraged parents to let children develop naturally  Discarded because it had little to say about the impact of environment on children’s development o Ethological theory  Views development from an evolutionary perspective  Behaviours are adaptive, they have survival value  Assume these behaviours are inherited  Ethologists believe that all animals are biologically programmed in sucha way that some kinds of learning occur only at certain ages. o Critical period: time when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after the critical period the same learning is difficult or even impossible.  Konrad Lorenz • Theorized that chicks are biologically programmed to follow the first moving object they see after hatching- usually the mother. • First step in imprinting- creating an emotional bond with the mother • When the mother was removed and replaced with another moving object, the chicks would follow that object and treat it as “mother”. • The chick had to see the moving object within about a day of hatching or it would not imprint on the moving object. - The Psychodynamic Perspective o Oldest perspective on child dev’p o Tracing its roots to Freud o Created the first psychodynamic theory : development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts at different ages. o Personality has 3 different components:  Id: reservoir of primitive instincts and drives • Present at birth  Ego: practical, rational • Emerges during the 1 year of life when infants learn they can’t
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