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Lecture 3

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Jeff Landry

PSYCH 2AA3 – Lecture 3- May 14, 2013 Reflexes and Behavioural States - Rooting- Touch on cheek results in turning of head towards touch and sucking - Reflexes disappear when they are not necessary, or they are replaced Physical and Cognitive Abilities - Child learns to hold his/her head up - Newborns acquire vision very rapidly- meaning they just needed the input (light) to develop - Newborns can recognize the smell of their mothers Neural Development - Midbrain and medulla- respiration, breathing, sleeping, etc  vital functions, these are what we’re born with since they are important - 4-5 yr old: holding a pencil is very challenging, control is not good until 6-7 when finer motor skills are developed- correlating to spurts Synaptic Development - Brain- white matter=myelin=connections, grey matter- neurons - Plasticity- infant’s experiences are shaping and moulding brain - Video- habituation: present a stimuli, the more often you present the less of a response you get, the babies were initially interested in the primate’s faces but eventually got bored- habituation o Too many synapses after some development- needs to chose the important ones- like ones involved in processing human faces – gets rid of (and replaces with other types) animal face processing synapse- perceptual narrowing o Synaptic pruning- losing of skills that are not necessary that the infant once had- related to experiences - we have more sensations that we can process- we don’t notice them until we consciously do so o we tend to focus more on auditory and visual sensations - perception- how you recognize and label a sensation Learning - classical conditioning: example little Albert and rabbit paired with loud noise - operant conditioning: positive and negative reinforcements and punishments o in infants: sucking (measured by a computer attached to a pacifier) leads to a rewards (example seeing picture of mom), so infant learns to continue to suck Ways of studying early perceptual skills - preference technique: infant sees large cardboard images (usually 2- mom vs non mom for example), experiments peaks through pinhole to see which picture the infant spends more time looking at- infant usually prefers one over the other, indicating that the infant can tell a difference, if infant looks at both for the same time then the infant can not tell the difference- can do this with colour vs non colour images to see if the infant can see colour - reinforcement- infant kicks to control a mobile (through string) and learns that he/she has control over movement Sensory Skills- Visual - reach adult levels by 2 years (20/20) - tracking- initially tracking is very choppy (slide 14 image- black line indicates infants eye, red indicates movement of an object) - infant tends to direct their attention to something w
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