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Lecture 2

lecture 2 - prenatal.docx

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Jeff Landry

PSYCH 2AA3- Lecture 2, May 9, 2013 Video- In The Womb - 23 chromosomes from mother, 23 from father - Humans- 20-25 thousand genes - Sex of child- determined by father – Y(small chromosome) for male child - 3 trimester (1-3 months) o Trimester 1) all organs mapped out, “blueprint” made  Day 15- nerve cells begin to form  Week 3- tube formation  Can be uncomfortable for mother, surge in hormones (like progesterone) in mother, can cause morning sickness - Heart- forms after 22 days, size of poppy seed, begins to contract and heartbeat begins - Eyes- begin as black dots on the head, eventually become eyes without lids - Mother may have natural instincts or “cravings” to eat healthy foods and avoid possibly harmful food - 9 weeks- fast development of nervous system, fetus body begins to “twitch”, stimulation of growth of muscles and strengthening of joints, brain connections still growing, involuntary reflexes rather than controlled movements o Heart not yet controlled by brain o Heart beating extremely fast- to a peak and eventually slows down to normal - 10-14 weeks- woman goes for first ultrasound scan - After 11 weeks- “kicking” and certain reflexes- first using legs o The more the fetus moves the stronger the reflex will be- good for development of walking - 12 weeks- 2 trimester- male vs female genitals- only difference is the angle at which it sticks out - 16 weeks- 14cm long fetus, nervous system quite developed, brain slowly beginning to control more movements o Hands develop at the same time as other sensory organs, before feet o Heart rate is now controlled by brain, beating twice as fast as a normal adult heart o Fetus can move many different parts of body o Development of sensory organs - Fetus practises grasping reflex, perhaps coming from our ancestors as it is not important for humans for survival- grasping important for other animal babies- like non-human primates - 18 weeks- digestive system works although not needed o Mother may become aware of moving fetus at this time, movements become strong enough o Eyes are now in correct position, some babies open their eyes at this time, although eyes do not work yet o 18cm long fetus o Another set of scans, important for early bonding which has shown to help development of fetus - After 6 months, end of 2 trimester- all organs developed, just very small - 3 trimester- sense development o Fetus puts on fat o Better mood/feelings of mother - 24 weeks- earliest a baby is born with a chance of survival o Difficult for lungs to function properly - 24 weeks- senses- nerves are now mature from sensory organs o Vision is the one sense that is not developed until after birth - 25 weeks- eyelashes, colour of eyes not fully developed until after birth as pigments may need light to development - Hearing- perhaps the most developed sense before birth o Sound travels through fluid faster than in air- fetus hears a lot, especially sounds made by mothers body, can also hear sounds from outside- especially the lower frequency sounds as high frequency sounds are more filtered out  Fetus will hear more of the vowels in speech  Fetus hears the mothers voice more since it travels through her own body  Fetus will hear loud sounds during ultra sound- secondary waves can cause vibrations in the amniotic fluid o - Final trimester- preparation for world outside the womb - 26 weeks and on- fetus is 90% of the time asleep, nothing awakes them o Oth
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