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Lecture 5

lecture 5 - cognitive development.docx

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Jeff Landry

PSYCH 2AA3- Lecture 5- May 21, 2013 - Concrete operational period- age 6-7, logical understanding (rule based reasoning), concrete ideas- abstract ideas are still too challenging - 3 components of concrete operations: o 1) reversibility: Understanding of the process of reversibility- physical and mental actions  Can operate upon past knowledge and understand that other may have different knowledge o 2) Class inclusion: task- 5 roses and 2 white roses, are there more roses or red roses? – concrete operational child will understand subgroups vs. larger groups (subordinate and super ordinate classes of groups)- preoperational child will not o 3) inductive logic- younger children can reason deductively, older children (concrete operational stage) can reason inductively - Horizontal decalage- rather than trial and error (and younger children would do), an older child will recognize the similarity between two problems o Ex math problems - Adolescence- characterized by the shift to abstract ideas o Understanding of “ISMs”- ex. Communism, etc. o Progressive shift in how scientific/methodological the child is in problem solving o Naive idealism- the adolescent believes he/she can work anything out- they want to try things because they think they have the answer - Slide 26- check the E and 7 only o Many adults do not answer this question correctly - Pendulum- which variables will affect the rate at which the pendulum swings (ex. Weight, string length) - Problem- does western education teach children to reason hypothetically/abstractly? Perhaps it is more due to exposure to training – adults of a 3 world nation may not be able to reason this way Vygotsky - Research on the same types of problems as Piaget - Theory of socio-cultural transmission of knowledge- unlike Piaget, the child’s development includes those more knowledgeable - In Piaget- child leads his/her own development, in Vygotsky- child is lead my others - Ex. Children playing “house”- children practising what is normal in their culture - Children master skills that are relevant - Scaffolding- providing a high degree of support(physical and emotional) in the initial stages, and then gradually pulling back as the child develops the skills and becomes more competent o With almost everything children learn, they are scaffolded - ZPD- zone of proximal development- each child has a “bubble” of potential – this bubble changes as the child develops more and more skills o Scaffolding occurs within this zone o Involves challenging a child- various educational technique- helps parents/teachers decide what child is capable of at that time - Personal speech- language supports development, speech can regulate behaviour o Children first verbalize everything they do, then eventually this becomes internalized - Slide 29- orange triangle o Piaget- concrete operational stage, inductive reasoning, child has the h
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