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Lecture

Lecture 22 (November 8).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2AA3
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich

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Lecture 22 (Thursday, November 8, 2012) Individual and Group Differences in Intelligence: Effects of Nature and Nurture on IQ ­ Want to know why different people score differently on IQ tests Is IQ Heritable? ­ Huge political/economic debate in US ­ If IQ is fully inherited then social programs are not needed ­ Certain groups are just stupid because of their genes and there is nothing we can do to help them ­ If IQ depends to some extent on experience/environment, then social programs must be instituted (i.e.  paid for) and environment does play a role Overview ­ Data supporting heritability of IQ  ▯behavioural genetics  ­ Data supporting effects of environmental factors on IQ  ▯the reaction range ­ Group differences in IQ  ▯social class, race, gender  Behaviour Genetics Evidence 1 ­ Twin studies ­ Looks at family genetic similarity ­ MZ together  ▯high concordance rate, genetics and environment the same ­ MZ reared apart  ▯when environment is less similar, less concordance rate but still high IQ score ­ DZ twins  ▯goes down but still high inheritability ­ Siblings together  ▯still high concordance rate but does go down again ­ Arguing strong genetic component but also argument for environment  Behavioural Genetics Evidence 2 ­ Adoption studies ­ Adoptive child’s IQ more similar to biological parents than adoptive parents, use this to support  genetics ­ Early on in childhood closer to adoptive parents but older kids closer to biological parents, shows at  first due to environment than later in life genetics 1 Lecture 22 (Thursday, November 8, 2012) Genes – Experience Interactions: The Reaction Rate ­ Genetically we are encoded to a certain degree of intelligence but they are going to be exhibited based  on environment  ­ Evidence for reaction range  Rats (Cooper & Zubek 1950s) Humans Smart versus dumb rates – maze bright versus  Effects of enriched environments on IQ maze dull Impoverished versus enriched environments In normal environment enrichment has little effect  on IQ Maze dull rates raised in enriched environments  In impoverished environment enrichments can  did just as well as maze bright rats in  help raise IQ (i.e. Sesame Street)  impoverished environments ­ What factors might get kids to bottom reaction range? ­ Social class and race  Genes – Experience Interaction 1: Social Economic Status ­ Kid
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