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Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence- ADHD (2).docx

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

September 21 , 2012 Psych 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence: ADHD (2) Epidemiology – General - PHI type starts in nursery or primary school, more common in boys than girls - PI type starts in primary or high school, equally common in boys & girls - Overall, twice as common in boys than girls; more common among teens - Accounts for about 50% of childhood psychiatric patients - 30% increase in diagnoses from 1997 to 2006 Comorbidity Problem - one of the general issues with the DSM is comorbidity: meeting the criteria for any disorder category, there is overlap where criteria will be met for other disorders - ADHD and: depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, overlap between all three ADHD – Comorbidity - conduct/oppositional deficient disorder: 70% of ADHD patients, predictive of adult criminal behaviour - mood disorder: 50% of lithium responsive bipolar patients - Tourette’s disorder: 40% of male Tourette’s patients - Over-represented in many axis I and axis II disorders (autism, APD, OCD) Levels of AD etiological analysis - Gene, Brain Structure/Brain Chemistry, Psychological Process, ADHD Behavioural Symptoms - Fundamental causes leading to ADHD behavioural symptoms Levels of AD etiological analysis - attention - response inhibition: inability of the individual to keep from inappropriate behaviour at certain times Etiology – Psychological Processes - attention:  selective attention: ability to ignore stimulus around us competing for our attention and focus on specific stimulus  attentional orienting in space: detecting location of the stimulus  arousal and vigilance: readiness to attend or select some particular aspect to attend to - no differences in selective attention or attentional orienting - issue with arousal and vigilance: ongoing ability to redirect attention - response inhibition:  cognitive control (executive functions): response inhibition, impulse control, working memory, planning, initiating action, organization, setting goals, self-monitoring  not allowing behaviours that don’t fit in to our plan sequence to intrude  thought to be in the frontal lobe  response inhibition: inability to keep from making a response that are inappropriate at that time  go-no-go-task: two different responses to two different stimuli, capital letter press left button, lower case letter press right button, bias their behaviour by making one response more dominant than the other, then check to see what happens when the less dominant letter is presented
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