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Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence- Autism (2).docx

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

October 1 , 2012 Psych 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence: Autism (2) Major Symptoms - abnormal or impaired communication - abnormal social interaction - restricted, repetitive, stereotyped activities:  preoccupation with restricted interests  repetitively arranging objects in the same way  insistence on sameness of routine  stereotyped, ritualistic movements: less obvious in adulthood, hand- waving, beating oneself, tendency to be self-destructive  lack of make-believe or imitative play: tend to ignore presence and activity of others - concentration on lack of social communication DSM - symptoms must have been present in childhood, PDDNOS Associated Symptoms and Features - do not have to be present in order for the diagnostic label, and do not contribute - hyperactivity, impulsivity, short attention span - high tolerance for pain - high sensitivity to sensory stimuli: bright lights, loud sounds disturbs them - sleep disturbances: tend to wake, rocking back and forth - abnormal eating: restricted diet; pica  pica: ingestion of non nutritious items - abnormal mood or affect:  inappropriate crying, giggling  flat affect Prevalence: Autism Spectrum Disorder - autistic disorder:  DSM-IV (1994): 2-5/10,000  Volkmar (2007): 13/10,000 - asperger’s disorder:  DSM-IV (1994): [No estimate]  Volkmar (2007): 3/10,000 - PDD-NOS:  DSM-IV (1994): [no estimate]  Volkmar (2007): 20/10,000 - if you total Volkmar’s estimates 36/10,000 - largest number is for PDD-NOS, smallest for aspergers - yeargin-allsopp et al (2003): 35/10,000 - autism society in Canada: 50/10,000 - CDC (2007): 67/10,000* - Autism Ontario: 70/10,000 - CDC (2008): 113/10,000* - NEDSAC (ON) (2012): 113/10,000 - Kim et al (2011) Korea: 264/10,000 - *U.S. 8-year-olds - 1% SE Ontario Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder - rates have been climbing - not increasing in frequency - risk of autism increases in older parents - mental retardation, dominant diagnosis, we assume this is a fixed condition, people are moving out of the category of mental retardation and into autism - clinicians, teachers, parents are much more aware of the condition of autism, more likely to detect individuals, especially in the upper end of the spectrum - girls have a much less increase than boys Increased prevalence - between 1966-1993: 5/10,000 - between 1994-2004: 13/10,000 - California, 1987-1998: 270% increase Why the increase - increased awareness of the disorder - earlier diagnosis - changes in diagnostic practice - diagnostic substitution - environmental toxins: toxic chemicals exposed to children, vaccinations Epidemiology – General - 4-5 times as common in boys than girls - highest male/
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