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Richard B Day

September 7 , 2012 PSYCH 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Abnormal Psychology: Introduction (1) Criteria of Abnormality - statistical criterion: extreme deviations from the statistical norm - sociocultural criterion: extreme or important violations of social or cultural expectations - adjustment criterion: danger to self or others - personal disturbance criterion: symptoms cause significant concern for the individual Statistical Deviance - where is the cutoff - what about other negatives - what about abnormal positives Sociocultural criteria - cultural standards vary across time - cultures differ in what they consider acceptable - if disorders are brain-based, they cannot be culturally relative - but on the other hand:  there are culture-specific disorders  where do new illnesses come from  Thomas Szasz – all mental illness cultural Adjustment criteria - could someone be dangerous but not abnormal? What about terrorists? - Who decides who is dangerous? - What about altruistic self-sacrifice? - Who decides how adaptive an individual’s functioning is? Personal disturbance criteria - what about those dangerous, or detached from reality who are not concerned? - What about things that disturb us that don’t seem pathological? Summary criteria - normally, a combination of criteria used - no clear line between normalcy and disorder - ‘abnormality’ based on agreement of psychologists and psychiatrists - pressures to include symptoms as disorders in DSM Models of psychopathology - medical model:  abonormality caused by physical problems in the brain  began with relationship between syphilis and mental symptoms  terminology: ‘sick’, ‘mental illness’, ‘nervous berakdown’  basis for pharmacological and physical treatments - psychodynamic model:  abnormal thoughts, behaviours, caused by unconscious conflict  same processes in normalcy, abnormality  treatment brings conflicts into consciousness  candidate disorders: anxiety disorder (neurosis), dissociative disorders, somatoform disorders - behaviour model:  abnormal behaviours are the disorder  abnormal behaviour acquired by learning, then generalized inappropriately  treatment changes reward conditions to produce extinction or relearning  candidate disorders: anxiety disorders - sociocultural model:  abnormality result from social pressures – poverty, unemployment, etc.  higher rates of mental disorder at low socioeconomic levels  crime violence, illness, increase in times of economic challenge  treat by changing external condictions  candidate disorders: anxiety disorder, deression - cognitive model:  abnormality result from maladaptive ways of thinking, interpreting  treat by changing ways of thinking through practice and reward  most popular and successful non-medical treatment  candidate disorders: anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorders History of DSM - 1952: DSM-I: 
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