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introduction (5).docx

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

September 17 , 2012 Psych 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Abnormal Psychology: Introduction (5) Why Categorize? - categories bias later assessment - diagnostic labels stigmatize individuals - lots of comorbidity: meets the criteria for more than one disorder, suggests that we are not properly classifying the categories - some ‘disorders’ don’t belong  learning disorders  sleep disorders  oppositional deficient disorder - not otherwise specified (NOS): used when the present symptoms do not meet any of the criteria for disorder. NOS is often the most popular used categories or diagnostic labels - DSM V:  Tends to make medical or mental illnesses of life Why These Disorders? - common in clinical settings: anxiety, mood disorders - debilitating, focus of much research: schizophrenia, mood disorders - illuminate psychological functions, issues – raise questions about the nature of the mind: dissociative, somatoform disorders - recent focus of public interest, research: ADHD, Autism - area of controversy: MPD/DID What we will cover - Symptom description: DSM diagnostic criteria - Epidemiology: prevalence, distribution - Etiology (causes): functional, structural, genetic - Treatments: physical (pharmacology), cognitive, behavioural What’s a cause? - some event, experience is a cause of effect B if every time cause A is present effect B occurs, A is a sufficient cause for B, may be a number of sufficient causes which lead to effect B - if A is not present B never occurs, necessary and sufficient - what must be present in order for a particular disorder to occur - ex.: cause of fire, three necessary conditions, fuel, oxygen, and heat however none are sufficient, all three are necessary no one is sufficient Diathesis – Stress Model - two necessary conditions for a mental disorder:  there has to be a flaw leading to these symptoms, predisposition thought of to be occurring at a biological level: genes, brain structure or chemistry  stress: external event like a personal, employment or relationship issue - stress + diathesis = disorder - dominant model of virtually every disorder - looks at two dimensions, level of functioning and environmental stress, only if the level of stress is high, poor functioning will be observed, firs
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