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Mood Disorders (2).docx

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Richard B Day

November 12 , 2012 Psych 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Mood Disorders (2) Manic Episode - inflated self-esteem, grandiosity - flight of ideas, racing thoughts - talkativeness, pressure of speech - irritability, distractibility - excessive pleasurable, risky behaviour - but, cocaine addiction has symptoms similar to bipolar disorder - majority of drug addicts have comorbid mental disorders Epidemiology - major depression:  point prevalence: 5-9% (females), 2-4% (males)  2:1 female:male  lifetime: 10-25% (females), 5-12% (males)  age of onset 20s to 50s; mean = late 30s  no race, SES, class bias - bipolar disorder:  lifetime prevalence: 1-2% no sex bias  age of onset late teens – 20s  no race bias; slightly higher in higher SES - major depressive episodes (MDE):  annual/lifetime prevalence in 10 high-income countries 5.5%/14.6%  about same in 8 low-middle income countries: 5.9%/11.1%  mean age of onset = 25.7 yrs in high-income countries; 24.7 yrs in low-middle income countries  female:male ratio = ~2:1 - Canadian annual prevalence of mood disorders:  Females: 6.3%  Males 4.2%  Overall: 5.2% Etiology: Freud - reaction to loss of love object: or the imagine/threat of a loss - lost love object introjected: individual identifies with the love object, part of our psyche which is that object - anger at lost object turned toward self: become angry at the part of us that is the individual - depression becomes reaction to any lost love object - individuals who are depressed are somewhat more likely to have recently lost a loved one Etiology: Seligman (cognitive) - learned helplessness model: in dogs, if you experience negative effects that you cannot control, when there is a negative effect you can control you do not escape it - individual experiences failure - has negative attributions for failure: the way we interpret the things that have happened to us, why do things happen? Attributing reasons for failures  internal reasons: something about me  global reasons: something very big and important about me, something very general about you  stable reasons: something unchanging about me - about the way we attribute causes for our problems and failures whi
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