Class Notes (835,068)
Canada (508,910)
Psychology (5,208)
PSYCH 2AP3 (481)

schizophrenia (3).docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Richard B Day

November 30 , 2012 Psych 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Schizophrenia (3) Etiology: Dopamine Hypothesis - hyperactivity of dopamine - neuroleptic drug effects:  effective drugs (phenothiazines) block dopamine receptors in animals  not all patients respond to phenothiazines  phenothuazines work in mania, other psychoses  effect may be indirect - dopamine antagonists reduce symptoms: chemicals that do this have such strong side effects that they are almost never used - dopamine agonists produce symptoms  amphetamine overdose mimics paranoid schizophrenia Problems with dopamine hypothesis - the problem may be too much dopamine, however, when we look at cerebral spinal fluid, if there were too much dopamine in the brain we would expect to see a lot more of the breakdown product, however we don’t - Van Kammen et al (1981) reviewed 12 studies of amphetamine administration:  Expect to see dramatic worsening  25% of patients worsened  46% of patients unchanged  28% of patients improved - MAO inhibitors do not worsen schizophrenic symptoms (Brenner & Shopsin, 1980):  Should have made things worse  3% of patients worsened  71% of patients unchanged  26% of patients improved - hypersensitivity or more of dopamine receptors, especially in the post- synaptic neuron which leads to a functional problem with dopamine? - D2 receptor do have impact on positive symptoms of schizophrenia, if you block D2 receptors you see an amelioration in positive symptoms Etiology: Types I and II - type I: excess dopaminergic activity  positive symptoms predominate  usually acute, good prognosis  no structural brain damage  neuroleptics effective in treatment  probably more of a genetic basis - type II: neuron loss in the brain  Negative symptoms predominate: enlargement in cerebral ventricules  Intellectual impairment  Poor prognosis  Less likely to have a family history of schizophrenia  May be due to perinatal brain damage Etiology: Genetic – twins - mostly relate to type I - kringlen (1967): MZ=45%; DZ=15% - pollin et al (1969): MZ=43%; DZ=9% - gottersman & shields (1972): MZ=57%; DZ=12% - fischer (1973): MZ=56%; DZ:26% - gottesman &shields (1982): MZ=46%; DZ=14% - MZ is much higher than DZ concordance rate - Something else going on in addition to the genetics Etiology: Genetic – Family - child (both parents affected) = 46% - child (one parent, one sib affected) = 17% - child (one parent affected) = 12% - much stronger link between maternal schizophrenia - children (one sib affected) = 10% - parent (one child affected) = 6% - grandchild (one grandparent affected) = 4% - uncle/aunt/niece/nephew = 3% s
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2AP3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.