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Abnormal Psych 2AP3 Lecture Jan 22.pdf

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Richard B Day

Abnormal Psych Lectures ▯ Why have we seen a Dramatic increase in ADHD?▯ - people are more attentive and aware of the signs and symptoms▯ - over medicalizing/ over pathologizing▯ - there could actually just be more cases▯ ▯ Dr Allen Francis▯ - ADHD is spreading like wildfire▯ - a 10% of kids now qualify▯ - increasingly ADHD is becoming the source of performance problems for many adults as well▯ ❖ we are simply putting a pathology label on normal behaviours▯ ▯ Cormobidity: 2/3 of people diagnosed with one disorder will be diagnosed with at least one or two more▯ ❖ more than half of the cases of ADHD meet the criteria for other disorders as well▯ ADHD Comorbidity▯ ❖ oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder▯ ❖ Mood disorder: 50% of lithium responsive bipolar patients▯ ❖ Tourette’s Disorder: 40% of male patients▯ ❖ Over-represented in many disorders: autism, APD, OCD▯ Etiology: where do these symptoms come from?▯ ▯ Psychological Process of ADHD▯ 1. Attention ▯ 2. Response Inhibition - the ability to keep yourself from making inappropriate responses▯ ▯ 1. Attention▯ Types of Attention▯ a) Selective Attention - the ability to pay attention to one source of input over another▯ b) attentional orienting in space - you turn your ears toward a noise▯ c) arousal and vigilance - a readiness to attend to the possible presentation of external stimulus▯ ➡ ADHD Attention▯ - Arousal and Vigilance▯ ❖ individuals with ADHD don’t have the same readiness to attend▯ ❖ generally lower level of brain arousal ▯ ❖ may be extreme extroverts▯ - the drugs given to ADHD people are given stimulants. WHY?▯ ❖ if hyperactivity is a compensation for low levels of brain arousal, the stimulant raises the brain activity so the person doesn’t have to compensate with behaviour (not known for certain)▯ 2. Executive Functions: ▯ a) Response Inhibition▯ a type of executive functions in the frontal lobe included with processes that help manage, guide, plan, self-monitor etc…▯ - response inhibition is not the same as impulse control (management of behavi
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