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PSYCH 2B03 (299)


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Richard B Day

INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY thSeptember 8 Major Issues in PersonalityNature versus Nurture o Is it how we are brought up or our environments o The way our genes evolve is based on the experiences we have with one anotherhuge growing field that was just discovered in the past decadeWhat is human nature o Has been debated upon greatly between sociologists psychologists and biologists o Is there such an event where every human being is similar in some particular wayHow does personality develop o What does change about our personalities as we grow up o What needs to occur so that changes personality after timeWhat motivates us o What are our motives and why do people act certain waysConscious versus unconscious o Introduced by Freud and psychodynamic theory o Our motives why we wantneed certain things are all unknown to us because it is stored in our unconsciousnessGroup versus individual o What should we be trying to understand when studying psychologyNomotheticone studies an for example an individual a tree and an animal but makes a general conclusion about these things bring out a general statement regarding them but not to its specific being something that is true throughout this dominates Personality TheoryIdiographicderived from Greek meaning individual drawing popular in Humanistic Theory studies a specific topic and not to make generalized statements but a specific statement pertaining to their study thSeptember 9 Personality versus Other FieldsMore global and general o Attempting to account for many aspects of psychology because it covers such a broad study o Personality is hugeLong history of Interest o Theories of personality goes back thousands of years very ancient and challenging fieldMany largescale theories o In other psychology courses there are only two or maybe three theories but in personality there are dozens of theories trying to explain but no dominate oneTheories dont guide research o Theories essentially are describingmaking sense of some observations we want to model reality to describe how things are o Theories provoke questions for us to understand things better experiments are often led by questioning theoriesTheories generatedtested differently o Develop a modeltheory from observations of data collection o Observation to theory to application in most other studies but in personality we start with application then move to theory and finally observe o Every form of psychotherapy has worked Theory Development and TestingTheorists clinicians not scientists o They have all worked with people and developed theories from their workInfluenced by theorists personality o More obvious here than in any other psychology field o Theorists personality has always shaped how they see the worldLittle empirical supportNonscientific evaluation o Most influential theorist have not tried to scientifically explain themselves but just used them in practice Theories difficult to test personality theories are not very good at giving certain foretelling events o Postdictive not predictiveafter something has happenbehavedfelt something then you can make conclusions afterthefact o Vague abstract conceptsnot clearly defined by measuring if you cant measure them then how can you develop conclusions What is PersonalityWhatever makes for consistency in our behaviour o Cant really define personality because all theorists have different meanings o We as humans are similar but very different at the same time o Personality is responsible for that consistency in our behaviourthoughtsfeelingsWhatever is responsible for individual differences in behaviour o Different people have different patterns of consistency Hypothetical ConstructsWe need to understand that personality does not exist not physical it is a hypothetical constructsomething that we have made up to make sense of certain events that have occurred around usMost of what we learn in psychology is a hypothetical construct such as the id ego superegoHypothetical constructs can entail energy gravity time etcWe look at observations make certain constructs from them and then derive theoretical relationships to describe and make sense of themPsychology uses a lot of hypothetical constructs just like physics the atom was once a hypothetical construct before we could actually use technologyThere are multiples ways to understand certain thingsEach theory explains certain aspects in greater depth elephant storycapturing something useful in a different light but is essentially trying to convey the same message acrossThey are metaphors making sense of what we dont understandEvery theory is a metaphor based on fictional charactersevery field of science uses them thSeptember 13Every theory is a metaphor because they always use hypothetical constructsThe following approaches answers some very basic questions about psychologywhat kind of construct should we be using to describe this It is a very general way in answering questionsThe following perspectives are in chronological order Perspectives on PersonalityType ApproachLimited number of distinct personality types o Each one of us have a specific typeEmphasis on biological bases of personality o You are born with your personality type and isnt going to change very much o Not been big in clinical psychology because they cant do anything about itOldest approach Greek and RomansThe Four Humours blood phlegm black bile and yellow bile o View developed by Hippocrates but was popular because of Galen o The human body has four substances blood black bile yellow bile and phlegm which need to be in balance in order for one to be healthy o When you have too much of one of these then you develop an illness o To get rid of an illness you must get rid of one of these substances you cannot get rid of yellow or black bile though o Bleeding was done often in the past to get rid of a certain illnessbarbers would bleed people o Sometimes you are born with an excess of one of these substances and will have an illness but also have a certain kind of personality o Blood sanguinedescribed as being extraverts creative optimistic goodnatured and social
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