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Lecture

Personality

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2B03
Professor
Richard B Day
Semester
Fall

Description
9/10/2012 5:36:00 AM First Midterm – Friday October 12  Intro  Freud  Jung Nature vs Nurture  How much of who we are is built into our genes?  To what extent do we come with our personality already intact? Vs is that personality shaped and formed after birth?  Look at the interaction of nature & nurture What is Human Nature? How does personality develop?  What is that changed & what changed it? How? What are the important things that need/do happen to us? What motivates us?  How can we conceptualize this moving force? Conscious vs unconscious  Virtually everything that is significant to our personality is unconscious to us – Freud  Others say we know who we are. Our personality is available for our conscious understanding Group vs individual  Nomothetic approach - Looking for general principals  Idiographic view – want to know/understand someone as an individual – rare view in psych – position is taken by humanist Why Chose Specific Theories?  Theory have been of significance in our development & direction of thinking o Sigmund Freud  Theorists who are important today  Theories that illustrate a particular approach to personality  Theories that Dr. Day thinks are interesting Ways Personality Theory differs from others  Lots of personality theories o Dozens of different theories all trying to explain same set of phenomenon  The oldest area in all of psychology o Over 2000 years o First personality theories – philosophers of Greece  Big idea, enormous range of phenomenon o Changes an huge amount of the way we think o Very general  The way they‟ve developed & been tested o Most theories begin with observation, see things & wonder why. Apply that theory to events in the real world o Personality Theory – usually began with clinical practice  What is it about people that can be changed  Real world application, then to theorizing (very different from other theories)  The way they are tested o Very difficult to generate testable predictions for personality theories o Personality theories do best: postdict (not predict)  Explain why something just happened o Relatively weak on empirical support  Two purposes for theories in science o Describing how reality is o Theories guide research o Personality theories  Good job of explaining how things are  Not so good at generating testable research Two observations that personality is designed to help us understand  Consistency – there is a pattern to our behaviour, thinking, emotional expression. o We attribute this to personality. Personality is the reason people are consistent.  People differ in their patterns of consistency o Why? Because we have different personalities  Cannot define personality o Theories differ in the definition of Personality Most important part of this course is the following, but very few questions will be tested. Refers to the way we understand theories. There is no such thing as Personality  Made up, created, illusionary idea o Hypothetical construct – an idea that we invent to try to understand the world in which we exist.  Because these theories are metaphors for reality we will never understand/fictional stories, we can invent any number of them o infinite number of theories o They‟re all useful – help us understand different aspects of personality o Each theory will tell us something useful – each proven more useful in certain situations over others Perspective General set of answers to very big questions about personality  What is personality made of/constructed of  What are the constructs we will use to understand personality? Type Approach Oldest approach  There is some small number of distinct personality types & each one of us has/is one of those personality types  These types are largely built in – biology/genetics determine the personality o Born with personality type  “The Four Humours” – Hypocrites & Galen o Human body is made of four substances  Blood  Yellow Bile  Black Bile  Phlegm o Ideally they are balanced – in good humour o Imbalance = illness o Can only get access to blood & phlegm (spit/bleed) o Some people are born with excess of one or more  Permanently out of balance  Susceptible to illnesses  Determines their personality o This theory was so influential, words are still in place today o Blood – sanguis – sanguine personality o Yellow Bile – colair – colleric personality o Phlegm - phlegmatic o Black Bile – melancholer – melancholy  Easily put into negative mood  No modern/contemporary significant Type Approach o Not popular because of its basis on biology  No way to change who we are  Useless for therapy or counselling  Less influential Trait Approach Late 1700s, early 1800s  Non-psychologists tend to think about personality  Personality = internal characteristics and tendencies o Honest, extraversion, friendly, generous etc  Emphasis on biological basis of personality o Largely determined genetically/hormonally o Less influence on experience/learning/environment/nurture o Very little room to change – still some room – good evidence that traits will change as we age  Says little/nothing about development of personality o Little impact on counselling/therapy because of lack of ability to change o Not useful way to think about personality from point of view of practitioner  Dominant approach in scientific approaches, not in clinical Psychodynamic Approach People think of Freud 1890s, 1900s  Personality = action & interaction of psychic structures  All see personality as involving actions of internal psychic/psychological processes  Psyche – mind  Behaviour = interaction between biology and experience o Experience is considered/important o Things that happen to us are critical in determining who we are as adults o Psychoanalysts were first people to take into account experience  Says A LOT about personality development o What are the experiences that are important in shaping who we are  Another important assumption o Most of what makes us who we are is unconscious  No conscious access to processes/structures that shape who we are  Must be explored in special way - through psychoanalysis Behaviourist Approach 1920  Behaviourists don‟t believe personality is useful  Personality = consistent patterns of behaviour  Emphasized experience and learning o You are born a blank slate o Who you are is developed through learning and experience o Everything is changeable  Influenced by Watson, Skinner  Don‟t believe in the concept of personality – personality = consistent behaviour  Behavioural therapy Humanist Approach 1930, 1940 Rogers, Maslow  Personality = manifestation of the Self, inner unity, inner essence  Central construct = The Self  Stress positive motivation and reaching of full potential  Believe in the positive nature of human beings  Most fundamental striving = realize full set of capabilities, to become who they are, “To be all that you can be”  Belief that meaningfulness is important in development o Searching for this meaning is very important part in full realization of The Self  Idiographic approach – Want to understand the unique individual for that reason only, not to generalize  Stress the uniqueness of each human being  Very big in counselling & psychotherapy Cognitive Approach Very big in all of psychology  Cognitive Revolution 1950s 1960s  Personality = style of information selection & processing/interpreting  Personality = Set of consistent ways of thinking  Closely related to Behavioruist o Cognitive behavioural Therapy  Most recent approach Evolutionary Psychology Approach  Emphasis on biological bases of personality  In order to understand personality, have to recognize that so many things about the human body are shaped by evolution o Things were selected for during the evolutionary process  Focus on adaptive function of personality through evolution  How does any behavioural personality make us successful at mating? o Study sex & aggression like Freud  Growing influence in the field  Individual patters & individual difference in the patterns o Problems for evolutionary psychology o Only interested in patterns of consistency among differences o Doesn‟t look at individual patterns Freud and Psychoanalysis 10/09/2012 05:36:00 Talk about Freud the most. Why?  Psychoanalysis was very first personality theory  Influenced all personality theories  Ideas were too important/too influential  Ideas & concepts infiltrated our culture o Difficult to understand products of western civilization without understanding his ideas  Most misunderstood o What we think about his ideas are wrong o We typically get a cartoonish idea of Freud‟s concepts  Very complex – always changing his theory  Died 1939 Stories that revolve around Freud‟s concepts Alfred Hitchcock‟s Psycho Kevin Costner‟s Field of Dreams FREUD Born in 1846 When he was 4, they moved to bigger city of Vienna Eldest of 6 children  2 boys  4 girls Bright child Mother‟s favourite In his teens  Sister wanted to learn how to play the piano  Family got a piano  Freud complained about difficulty studying because of piano o Piano left Top of his class Medical school at the age of 17 He wanted to be a medical researcher, professor, faculty member Spent years working in labs Realized he wasn‟t going to get a faculty position  Became a neurologist  In 1881 – nothing was known about nervous system  Neurologists are seeing special patients o Symptoms seem physical, but don‟t have something wrong physically o We recognize it as Conversion Disorder – known as Hysteria in his time  Primarily women o They would massage patient, spa treatments o Freud used electrical stimulation – know nervous system worked electrically o He came across a special patient  Joseph Breuyer‟s patient  Birtha Papenhein – Hysterical Symptoms  Medical History – noticed if she recalled & experienced the emotion at which the symptom appeared – the symptom vanished  Became convinced that people were suffering from emotional memories  Needed to help them recall the past  “Anamnesis”  Use hypnosis o Freud put a couch in his office – so people could lie there for hypnosis  He‟s bad at inducing hypnotic state  1880‟s – goes to Paris to see Jean Martin Charceau o Man in charge of entire wing called Sal Patrier  Ward of Hysterics  He was demonstrating that if you hypnotize these women & suggest that their symptoms will go away, they do go away  Suggest symptom appear – it does  “In all of these cases it is always about sex”  “Hysteria” – Eusteros – Uterus  Greeks believed it was caused by longing for children  Uterus would wander in the body  1888 – back to France o Works with Bernhein  Shows Freud the state of post hypnotic amnesia  Part of the mind can hide things from consciousness  Memories can be blocked from consciousness  If you push them they will remember  Post hypnotic suggestion  Most don‟t know why they did what they do  Some give a reason  Sometimes we do things we don‟t understand  Reasons we believe are not the real reason  Back to Vienna – still bad at hypnosis o Patient says let me talk and remember  Eventually by free association she remembers o Analyst just listens to patient talk & flow out  Eventually will get to things we want  It all comes from sexual experience & childhood o Every patient had some disturbing inappropriate sexual relationship in childhood o First person to notice childhood sexual abuse  Seduction Theory o Eventually gave it up o On further research & self analysis  Most stories were not true – they were fantasies  Not lies, stories were made by the unconscious  Disguised things that the patient wished would happen  1970s o Patients recalled memories of sexual abuse  1980s o are they really events or productions that relate to something else entirely o Most “recovered memories” are not accurate 1900  The interpretation of dreams 1909  Went to the United States  Carl Jung went there too 1930  Nazis came to power - Germany  Freud was in Vienna – told to leave Europe 1936  Nazi took over Vienna o Freud refused to leave  His youngest daughter was arrested by the Gestapo o Immediately made plans to leave, paid big some of money o Fled from Austria – France – London England Died Sept 23 1939  Youngest daughter Anna remained living in London England until 1980s practicing as a psychoanalyst None of Freud‟s history will be tested There is no individual in the history of science that has been referred to more than Freud – possibly Darwin – Freud usually overpowers Darwin Freud‟s Ideas Motivation Why do we do the things we do? Goals? Wants?  Hedonism – we want to maximize our experience of pleasure, minimize pain/unpleasure  Sex (Eros) – large motivation o Neuroscientific evidence – good things/pleasure activate same area in brain  Aggression (Thanatos greek for death) added after the 2 ndWorld War o All activate the same area in brain  Have to imagine that there is an energy moving around influencing o Libido (Latin for “I will please”) o It powers both sexual and aggressive behaviours Can we base everything based solely on these two fundamental drives?  Sex & aggression is built into human beings Notion of thermodynamics  Libido moves around/transforms – sexuality vs aggression We make decisions that will produce pleasure of the sexual or aggressive kind Have to imagine that there are structures or processes Id (latin word for it)  Most primitive and basic  Only one that is present when we are born o entire mind/psyche is the id at birth  Translates need into drive o Need – something you have to have to survive o Drive – psychological feeling that you have to get that something  Operates on Freud‟s pleasure principal o If it feels good, do it, and do it right now  Very few skills  No direct contact with outside world – doesn‟t see/hear anything Locked in black box  Only thing it can see is stored memories of the outside world  Primary Process o When it experiences need/drive – looks through memory to find something that is related to the satisfaction of that need  Cathexis – attachment of libido to something (image)  Predicate Thinking – difficulty distinguishing images that are anyway similar o Easily confuses things that look alike  No sense of cause and effect – no sense of how the outside world works  Also has control over reflex – grasping, sucking  No sense of time – always NOW – never been a past, concept of future is meaningless  Where all of our libido resides at birth This is the biological basis –the fundament The moment we are born, a part of the id begins to differentiate to deal with the outside world – becomes ego Ego Designed to be our reality tester Learning, experiencing part of the mind Works on Reality Principle  Modification of pleasure principle  If it feels good, do it only if it‟s safe. o Takes into account the consequences of our actions  Can plan for future gratification  Primarily unconscious Secondary Process  Manages what image is the id investing images in o Taking libido that the id used to invest images in – turn it into action to gain what the image is o Only going to do this if it is safe  Reinvestment of libido in the outside world (Almost always, object = person) When the Ego develops out of the id, all of it‟s activities are powered by libido  Thinking  Rational processes o Energy comes from store of libido o Reduces sexual/aggressive – redirected to Ego  Steals libido from id o The weaker your sexual/aggressive urges are Can block id from investing libido in images – create barriers “anti-cathexis”  Creates barrier between id and that image o Can‟t think about that image o Can‟t become conscious  Don‟t think about that, it‟s dangerous Ego‟s capabilities  Id has no direct contact  Ego does  Id has no sense of cause & effect  Ego does  Id has no sense of time  Ego does – there is tomorrow – can develop plan to get something if you can‟t get it now.  Id is completely totally unconscious – id‟s activities do not have the qualities that we call consciousness  Also true with some of ego  Id represents biological basis  Ego represents reality – experiences, learning Ego‟s concern is purely practical  Do it if it will cause no harm o Harm being – whether we can get away with o Has nothing to do with morality, ethics Super Ego Transformation of the id to have special qualities Sense of right and wrong  Social, cultural morality/ethics Two parts  Ego Ideal – represents good stuff o Things that we were rewarded o When we experience things we feel good, happy, proud o All the things we should do and feel  How do we know? – Praised o Satisfies both instincts – sex & aggression o Things that are valued in culture  Conscience – should not do or feel o We‟ve been blamed or punished for doing/feeling certain ways o When we even think about anything in the conscience – we feel shame, guilty – leads to unpleasure Most of activity is in unconscious Small percent is conscious  We can think about right and wrong  Conscience Actions are powered by libido  Steals libido from id to power it‟s activities  Can form anti-cathexis to keep id from thinking about immoral/bad/unethical images Freud said only time libido gets topped up – puberty Development Two periods of sexual development  From birth to about 6/7  Puberty & onwards Psychosexual Stages At each stage, sexual/aggressive pleasure is discovered from different part of the body Child discovers each of the zones (oral, anal, phallic) sequentially  at each stage the child has something to learn about how to manage these instinctive drives Oral Stage – birth to ~ 1 year Pleasure produced from stimulation of mouth – eating, sucking etc. Early Oral Stage “Oral incorporative stage” – first 6 to 8 months  Primarily sexual  Suck & swallow – gain primary pleasure Late Oral Stage “Oral sadistic/Oral aggressive stage”  Primarily aggressive  Teeth develop  Biting, chewing  At some point, demand feeding will end o Feed child on a schedule o Child has to learn an important lesson  “You can‟t always get what you want”  Sometimes needs are going to go unsatisfied – have to accept that Anal Stage – 1 to 3 years Early Anal Stage “Anal Expulsive”  Pleasure from delivering feces o same pleasure as any other sexual pleasure  can do it anytime – diapers Late Anal Stage “Anal Retentive”  Pleasure from withholding feces  Need to manage impulses  Potty training o Child learns – there are important times/places in which satisfaction of impulses is appropriate Talking/Walking relate to ego development The Phallic Stage – 3 to 5 years Gone through oral – can‟t always get what we want Gone through anal – can‟t get what we want here & now Child discovers stimulation – earlier for males, later for females  Beginnings of masturbation – when mom is bathing Each of the psychosexual stages involves learning about an impulse  Learn about impulse management  Kinds of pleasure that we discover in these stages are the kinds we have in adulthood  Libido distributed to oral, anal, phallic different ways o Will determine apparently non sexual/aggressive actions Onset of the Oedipus Complex Oedipus Complex This is the single most important part for development  Will shape so much of who we are for the rest of our lives Most misunderstood of Freud‟s ideas Up until now, all of the pleasure comes from child‟s own body  “polymorphous perverse” – in adulthood it would be considered perversity  Up until this point, child is narcissistic – self love o Greek myth about Sheppard “Narcissus” Child knows a lot about the world – ego has been developing  Knows how to talk etc, can manipulate BOYS For the very first time, invests sexual libido to an external object Mom/Person who is most associated with pleasure  “boy wants to have sex with his mother” - NO o no knowledge about sex  Boy wants mom to always focus on himself o Every kind of pleasure he‟s ever known has been associated with his mother o Just wants her all to himself  How much libido is invested? o Depends on how much pleasure was provided  Warm, stay at home mom vs cold mother Boy then sees Dad as rival for Mom‟s attention  “child wants to murder father & have sex with mother” o child has no real knowledge about death  cartoons etc  Wants dad to go away – not going to happen o Dad is likely to retaliate – big, strong, powerful  Child is afraid of revenge – dad can take away penis o “Castration Anxiety” – fear that dad will take away child‟s penis  Why would any little boy think his penis can be removed? o If a parent catches boy masturbating – parent will say “if you keep doing that I‟ll take it away/it will fall off” o Might have seen a female nude – thinks her penis has been removed What does boy do now?  Typical resolution – withdraw most sexual libido from mom and take it back to himself, some still left attached to mom o How much is taken back?  Depends on how nurturing/pleasure giving the mother is  How much of a threat is dad? o Some aggressive libido taken back from dad – some still left  How much is taken back?  Depends on how threatening dad is etc o To further protect himself from dad – identification  Taking into ourselves, making a part of ourselves like others  Child identifies with dad  By becoming dad like – you make yourself more attractive to mom  More importantly – if you are like someone, that someone is less likely to attack you – identify with potential aggressor – defensive identification Stockholm Syndrome – people held hostage come to identify with their captors  Patty Herst – heir to millions of dollars, born in luxury  Kidnapped in California and held for ransom for several weeks  She developed Stockholm Syndrome o She showed up dressed in combat helping her captors rob a bank  Super Ego o representation of Dad in the child – defensive identification o identification with mom – if we can‟t have her for ourselves, we can be like her & love that part of ourselves What about decathected libido? – the libido we‟ve taken back  displacement of sexual libido to mom-like objects o predicate thinking – id‟s difficulty in discriminating alike objects  invest libido in objects that resemble mom o could be a sister, neighbour, female teacher, classmate – anyone who is similar enough to satisfy id‟s behaviour to invest in mom  displace aggressive libido to dad-like objects o male teacher, boss, policemen, security officers  anyone who is authoritative Number of different resolutions/pathways, depending on relationships between mother and father All of this shapes the targets of sex & aggression & behaviours of sex & aggression Single Mother  More common – boy invests sexual libido in mom & there is some rival – boyfriend of mom – plays out in usual way o boy will turn out to have many more characteristics of mother  Other case – no rival at all – only boy and mom o Investment of sexual libido in mom & no need to remove it, no cathexis of aggressive behaviour to an external object o Momma‟s boy – separation anxiety, school phobias  Eventually mom will push child away – she will be in part the recipient of aggressive behaviour o Child‟s superego is almost entirely identified with mom Castration Anxiety lasts until there is a resolution GIRLS Age 3-6, begin the same as boys do For the first time cathect sexual libido to external object  To their caretaker – mom Wants to remove any rivalry  Dad Girl discovers that people have penisis – she doesn‟t  Her assumption is that her penis has been stolen o Penis envy  Believes mom took her penis o May also discover that mom‟s penis is missing too  Girl decathects most of sexual libido from mom  Decathects most aggressive libido from dad discovering he has a penis o Cathects aggressive libido to mom o Cathects sexual libido to dad  Mostly to dad‟s penis  Controversial – cathects to penis, not person Resolution  Decathects most aggressive (less than boy decathected from mom) libido from mom because of fear o Threat that mom poses is not as great compared to threat of father to boy o Leaving more aggressive libido with mom  Relationship between mother & daughter should be more fought with than between father and son  Decathets most sexual libido from dad (not as much as boy – mom is less of a threat) o Less return of sexual libido to girl, more left with dad Identifies with mom Identifies to some degree with dad  to be him is to have his penis This forms the super ego What about decathected libido?  Displace it to mom-like and dad-like objects o Aggressive libido to teachers, sisters etc (not as aggressive as boys because more aggressive libido left with mom) o Sexual libido to primarily penis like objects and people  May help us to understand “fan behaviours”  Girls screaming for boy bands etc  All of these male figures that they‟re obsessed with put emphasis on sex Girl‟s riding horses  Replaces penis etc Freud was clear that he did not understand women very well  Because the girl‟s motivation for resolving her Oedipus complex was not as strong as boys‟, she will identify less with mom & dad and her super ego will be weaker o Implies that girls are less moral than guys – no o Freud – morality would be less closely tied to rigid moral rules Feminist side of psychoanalysis It‟s true that girls have penis envy  Envy is not for the organ itself  It‟s for the status that the penis represents o Males are more dominant sex  It‟s about power/status  They envy the position that boys are given in life o I want the same status/respect that males have We should be seeing “womb envy”  Males desire the ability to get pregnant  False pregnancy o Males show this with their wives are pregnant Resolution of Oedipus complex marks the end of psychodevelopment Enter the Latency Stage  Less obvious overt behaviours into distant behaviours o Sex & aggression go underground for about 6 years old (until puberty) Genital Stage Involves bits & pieces from all previous experiences from birth to age 6/7  Resolution of Oedipus complex etc Personality & Fixation Libido fixated to objects Too much or too little pleasure in each stage Oral Incorporative Can leave a lot of libido in this substage  You got more pleasure than usual from oral stimulation in this stage  Or you have too little Oral (incorporative) personality  Sexuality heavily revolves around oral pleasures  Also colours their personality o Essence of oral incorporation – taking in o General tendencies outside sexual realm TAKING IN  Watching movies, people, reading  Any form of taking in anything involves oral pleasure  Ex science – it‟s about taking in/learning new information  People who are trusting, gullible, tend to believe things that they are told even without independence  “suckers” – they‟ll swallow anything o Physical symptoms – stomach upset, vomiting; all related to oral incorporation Aggressive Involve fixation in later oral stage (when teeth erupt) – less time, less people  Chewing, biting, nibbling etc More interested in non overt ways  GIVER OUT o Sharp or biting wit, sarcastic, cynical o Critics, trial lawyers (praise worthy to be aggressive, sharp etc) o Physical symptoms – has something to do with digestive tract Anal Have to understand Shit vs Value  When a child wants to reward primary caregiver, don‟t have anything to give them – all they have is shit o In the child‟s mind – shit has value o Shit vs Value vs Money Expulsive First part of the anal period Not typical of most people Only when a real excess is left behind  Larger proportion of sexual interests devoted to rear end  As children in this stage – messy and dirty, tolerant/interested in dirt/disorder o Same characteristic in adulthood – disorderly, comfortable with disarray, messy o “Don‟t have their shit together”  Givers – generous with time, money. Will give you the shirt off their back, loan money & never ask for it back, volunteering o Generous to a fault Retentive 2nd half of anal stage – child is toilet training & derives primary sexual gratification from keeping shit  Same kind of sexual interests as anal expulsive – interest in backside  At this stage infant is clean – adulthood: highly structuralized, organized o “They really have their shit together”  Keepers – don‟t lend freely, keep things to themselves, hoarders in the extreme, collectors  Stubborn – hold onto their views/beliefs  Anal Triad o Cleanliness/Orderliness o Stinginess o Obstinacy (Stubbornness) Phallic Never played a very significant role in Freud‟s theories Personality Dynamics What are the processes that move libido around Ego is the executive officer of psyche  Part of the mind that knows reality well  Sees what the id wants, tries to find & interact with that object in the real world What guides the ego‟s choices?  Anxiety o This is what we‟re trying to avoid in life Conscious Ego  Only one that experiences anxiety Unconscious Ego  Tries to minimize the amount of anxiety that the conscious ego experiences We develop our sensitivity to anxiety as early as we can  From birth – traumatic experience – birth trauma o Amount of anxiety we experience at this process = amount we will experience in rest of life  More trauma during birth – more tendency for anxiety later in life Sources of Anxiety Outside world  Tests, illness, others  This is reality anxiety Super Ego  If we do something that is inconsistent with the conscious  Moral anxiety o This is not experienced by the super ego, it causes the moral anxiety and the conscious ego experiences the anxiety Id  Neurotic anxiety o Stems from fear that we will give in to forbidden/dangerous id impulse o Not necessarily moral, but physical consequences  Attack some girl on the street and get beat up/caught  This is focussed on cause it can cause mental disorders Ego tries to steer course along through life to minimize anxiety & maximize pleasure. How does the ego minimize anxiety? Deal with them rationally/logically/consciously  Doesn‟t often happen Unconscious ego minimizes conscious ego‟s anxiety by distorting reality so the ego doesn‟t understand that it should feel anxiety  These distortions of reality to minimize reality = defence mechanisms  not the healthiest way to live a life  Main point of Freudian Therapy is to get things out of unconscious and into conscious ego – make conscious ego aware of hidden problems so they can be dealt with rationally/logically Defence Mechanisms Repression Ex – Boy & mom Want to cathect libido to mom Ego sets up an anticathexis – prevents investing libido in object  Keep the conscious ego from knowing there is a sexual impulse towards mom Repression – keeping anxiety inducing impulses from consciousness Problems If impulse is strong, there is a lot of pressure to get that impulse satisfied Ego has to keep pushing back & anticathect, it uses up libido  Weakens the ego – uses up libido  Does not produce gratification Can‟t keep an impulse down forever – Id never gives up on these impulses, will never change them and won‟t give up  Pressure will be so strong from id, will break through repressive barrier Parapraxis - action that isn‟t quite what it‟s supposed to be Freudian Slips  An action that has a disguised meaning  Satisfies to a small degree some impulse that has been repressed o Slips of the tongue, writing things wrong, forgetting things, breaking things o Mistakes are not accidents but symbolic release/small gratification of impulse Dreams Freud‟s first book – The Interpretation of Dreams  Latent Dream – unfulfilled wish, repressed wish that the id would like fulfilled & conscious ego would not accept  When we fall asleep, ego is weekend – not quite strong enough to forbid impulses – can only force the id to compromise  Day Residue – leftover images of things in life we‟ve seen during the day  Dreamwork – massaging this latent impulse/dream so we can experience it as manifest dream o Symbolization – find image that represents object of impulse o Displacement – replace object with symbol o Condensation – is there some way that another impulse could be satisfied by a modification of the symbol o Manifest Dream Usually, the symbol is not even the central feature  Dream symbolism  Dream interpretation books – NO o Symbols are specific to you o Few things that tend to be symbolized the same universal  Sexual acts/genitalia  Telephone poles, cigars, snakes = phallic In my father’s house  Woman tells story of a dream she has – she‟s stuck in a basement with only one exit o Any dark enclosed space with one exit = vaginal symbol Displacement Recathexis of libido from a feared, dangerous image to an image that causes much less anxiety Very fundamental defence mechanism Sublimation  When the displacement is activities that society values o Source of all valued human culture – art, sports etc  Football players, boxers Projection “I hate dad” = “Dad hates me”  Erotomania = when someone believes that a famous person loves you o Interpreted as a combination of displacement and projection o “Anne Murray loves me.” = I love Anne Murray  Anne Murray = mother  I love mom Rationalization “I love mom” – find reasons for what we‟re doing that have nothing to do with our lust for mom  Mom needs my attention, she‟s getting older, it‟s what a good son would do Paedophilia “Sex is good for kids” – “Sex before 8, or it‟s too late” – classic case of rationalization  Conscious ego really believes the rationalization Reaction Formation Original impulse = “I hate dad”  Defence = “I love dad” How does this satisfy aggressiveness towards dad?  Can deny dad certain pleasures all in the name of love/concern/care Homophobia What they really feel is attraction to men, but it causes them anxious  Spend time with homosexuals Denial Not lying Memory is blocked by unconscious ego – anticathexis – can‟t consciously remember having done something  You truthfully believe you didn’t do it Most primitive & least satisfactory of all defence mechanisms  No satisfaction, have to maintain, no access to past memories  Most pathological Memory system generally works like this  Nostalgia – look back at the past and it always looks more nicer than now o You have selectively remembered good things/blocked out bad things Defence Mechanisms – are not pathological Phobia – irrational unreasonable fears For most of us they do not interfere with our daily lives Curious Aspects Limited number of things to which we can develop phobias Can develop fears to very specific things, relatively narrow list of these things Most likely to show up in females than males Essentially a combination of displacement and reaction formation  Snake phobia o Conscious experience – afraid of snakes  Real underlying feeling is the opposite – I love snakes o Displacement – isn‟t snakes, snakes are a symbol for the penis o Female fear of snake = leftover from penis envy of Oedipus complex Not by themselves pathological – normal and ordinary Overuse/misuse of very normal psychological process Positive & Negative Critiques for Freud Received a longer period of criticism because it‟s the longest Arose about 150 years ago 2 classes of criticism Empirical/Scientific Criticism Freud‟s sample was not representative of the population at large  Primarily young Jewish females  Therefore we shouldn‟t be generalizing from what he had discovered Freud‟s sample was those individuals with psychological problems Freud‟s response We can‟t go back and check his data All of his notes were destroyed We can never know for certain what exactly he heard from them and what he managed to interpret from them Essentially validated his theory using his theory To test the psychoanalytic theory, he used the method of psychoanalysis Does psychoanalysis work on patients? Yes it does work – but that doesn‟t mean it‟s validated Personality theories are not good at predicting what an individual will do in the future Not good at prediction – very good at postdiction  Applies to almost all personality theories Difficult to develop testable hypothesis  To do that you have to have a prediction  Difficult to test empirically In the last 15-20 years, more and more people in psychology have come around to accept a number of Freud‟s biggest ideas  Accepted generally = there is an awful lot of stuff that goes on in the unconsciousness Still has a considerable impact today – moreso than 25 years ago in many respects The constructs in Freud‟s theories are difficult to measure Fair criticism – will be true in other theories Things about the theory people don‟t like for philosophical reasons Topics of sex & aggression – people argue that surely there must be more to our desire and needs – just a preference  Modern evolutionary psychology does focus on sex & aggression Emphasis on the unconscious  Most of who we are and what makes us who we are is conscious  Don‟t like the aspect of not knowing a lot about ourself Jung and Analytic Psychology 10/09/2012 05:36:00 Carl Jung In his own right – very influential Shaped our view of literature & history, myth & religion Jungian approaches are very common His views were shaped (to some degree) by his own experienced 20 years younger than Freud, born in Switzerland Grew up in family that was very heavily religious Many ministers in the church in his family – Swiss Reform Church  or academics interested in philosophical religion Parents did not get along very well Jung had a troubled relationship with his mother  Ambiguous relationship – afraid of her Inner kind of boy – day dreams Jung had a big interest in the unconscious Word Association tests  Say a word and ask patient to say the very first word that comes to mind  Did this for several years and eventually published a paper for his results Tried to contact Freud  Began a correspondence with Freud that lasted for about almost 10 years  Jung was protestant, Freud was Jewish o Freud saw Jung as the figurehead out in the public to get psychoanalysis to public Jung was named president of psychoanalytic association He became the figure who headed psychoanalysis in Europe In 1910, Freud brought Jung to North America Their relationship was cooling down Jung was not comfortable with some of the basic ideas the Freud had Jung published a book that argued that libido was not purely aggressive and sexual He was very interested in telekinesis and psy powers 1913 – broke off their relationship & never spoke again Jung was devastated – people believed he experienced a schizophrenic episode Jung saw them as a message from his unconsciousness  Rather than being disoriented by them, he painted them 1989 – end of Jung‟s break His theory was intact as we know it today His views about the unconscious mind included that all human beings share a common piece of their unconscious  Collective unconscious o Have to look at the common stories o They are common because they are drawn from the contents of unconscious  To understand this he travelled & further refined his findings in personality Continued writing actively until just before his death in 1961 Continues to be a tremendous influence on mythology, literature. Jung‟s ideas about motivation Freud said only two motives – sex & aggression Jung said libido is a general life force – it‟s about everything that enhances and builds and grows in our lives, not just sex & aggression  This is the break from Freud  Freud = Jung had given up on the idea that sexuality was everything Two pieces to the unconscious Collective Unconscious This is a part of the mind that every single one of us shares  Every human being that has ever lived shares the same unconscious  The fundament/basis of human nature Contains all of the general energy that powers behaviour  Organized into archetypes Jung was not a linear thinker/writer – hard to follow his literature Archetypes – instincts, each of these archetypes comes with its own little parcel of libido – there is energy associated with each of the archetypes – energy that powers the behaviour and gives expression to the archetypes  Instinct = cognitive tendency = built in ways of interpreting reality = not a behavioural tendency = tendency to tell particular kinds of stories about the world around us Think of archetypes as cookie cutters with respect to our interpretation of the world – no content – just a tendency to see things a particular way As we became more human (evolution) we experienced the same things  Instinctual ways of interpreting/understanding things Shared beliefs about human character – instinctual ways of understanding the personal world  Trickster  Wise old man  Mother & father etc How do we find out what these archetypes are? Look for common themes in art, religion, mythology, literature When we face an ambiguous/unclear situation we draw upon our unconscious to help us understand it  We draw upon the archetypes  Those archetypal shapes form the basis of our understanding of the world and the stories we tell about it Jung gave the archetypes names – not of the archetype, but of the projection of the archetype  We gain gratification when we use up some of the libido attached to the archetype o We do that when we are able to experience things that can be understood in terms of an archetype (image, story) then we have used up libido in that process and that‟s satisfying o We project our archetypes onto the world, onto our experience and interpret our experience in archetypal terms  What we‟re trying to do in life is interpret our experience I archetypal terms – that is our goal o Ex the archetype of the hero  We tend to structure our experience in terms of a single individual overcoming great odds to achieve wonderful things = hero  Military, fire department, social work, sports teams  Despite the fact that there are hundreds of people involved we focus on an individual  This “hero” idea/stories can be found all around the world  Movies, TV  We tend to structure our understanding of reality according to the hero archetype We all share this Present at birth As we enter the world and have personal experiences, we develop the personal unconscious  Empty at birth – no experiences  As we experience we begin to gain content  Pieces of the mind that never made it into consciousness because they weren‟t intense enough  Pieces of the mind that are not currently being thought about – forgotten or temporarily neglected material  Information that reached consciousness but that we found upsetting, disturbing is pushed down into the personal unconscious Complexes Principal of Equivalence – libido is neither created nor destroyed, there‟s a fixed amount of libido present  When you devote more libido to some activity/mode of thinking, you take away from another activity/mode of thinking Progression of instinctual activities throughout life  Most of our libido early on is devoted to biological needs  Young/middle adulthood – shifts towards more psychological/philosophical/spiritual needs Concept of Self Actualization Full realization of the highest human potentials – ultimate goal Jung had a more optimistic outlook on life  He saw balance, complementarity, synergy, sharing  Highest possible goal was to evenly distribute libido among the many archetypes – entropy Ego (Jung‟s version) Freud – begins to exist at birth Jung – exists before birth  All of the ego is conscious Personal Unconscious Present at birth but empty – just a container  The contents of the personal unconscious will be created as we live our lives – contents that never reached consciousness  Contents that have been actively pushed out of consciousness because they‟re disturbing  Forgotten content  Content that was not intense enough to register in the conscious  The contents of the personal unconscious are organized into complexes o A collection of ideas/impressions/images that have a common theme and a shared emotional tone/shared feeling all about the same thing o Each complex have at their core a little bit of archetypal energy  Ex personal experiences relative to the mother archetype o Personal experiences/emotions/thoughts relative to core of archetypal energy o Because the complexes contain archetypal energy, they power our behaviour – if we have a father complex = try to be a father etc o Complex can be positive or negative  Negative – sucks away from personal development and growth  Positive – that leads to greater altruism etc  Depends on what sort of activities the complex lets you engage in What we need for personal development is to bring as much out of the complex & personal unconscious out into the consciousness Each complex has little bubble of archetypal energy = give same name to the complex as the archetype  Hero complex – ideas & thoughts gathered around a bubble of hero archetypal energy The complexes – even though they have the same name – are going to have different content = differences between individuals Dr Day calls these Vital Archetypes/Complex The Persona Persona – Greek for personality Archetype – instinct/desire to please others, desire for social conformity, need to fit in  Conformity is not a bad thing – we need this  We have to have this desire to be acceptable to others – absolutely critical  Conformity is always necessary to some degree Complex – those aspects of ourselves that we consider acceptable to others; things about ourselves that we think are socially acceptable  Different aspects – things acceptable to adults/parents/teachers is different than things acceptable to friends  One complex we‟re fairly aware of There‟s a risk that we may be so invested in the persona that we may loose the rest of ourselves – inflation of the persona Things that cover or hide the body are also projections of the persona Things like doctors bag, lawyer‟s bag is a projection of the persona arcetype The Anima ONLY POSESSED BY MALES Archetype – inner understanding of how women are; male stereotype of femaleness ; mans internal image of a women  Projected as a characteristic of nurturing, caring tending  Also projected as sexual alluring side of femaleness  When males interact with women, they expect to be interacting with the stereotype of the woman Complex – very important in a man‟s unconscious; based on our own experiences and feelings; every aspect/thought/emotion of that we consider to be feminine/inappropriate for a male; contrasexual  A male‟s feminine side  Dominates the personal unconscious o If as a man you really want to get to know yourself – must get in touch with your feminine side o Inspiration for a male is always from the female side o Man‟s guide to his unconscious The Animus ONLY POSESED BY FEMALES (opposite of the anima) Archetype – female‟s instinctual understanding of what maleness represents; projected out onto interactions with men  Unconsciously expect a male to act a certain way based on her projection of the animus archetype Complex – everything about a woman that she thinks/believes/feels that she has pushed down into unconscious because it is very masculine  Personal unconscious is dominated by her maleness  To understand unconscious aspects of oneself – must get in touch with masculine side  Masculine – rational, logical, relatively unemotional, physically active – stereotype The Shadow Archetype – most basic, instincts; powerful, deeply moving; shared with virtually every other animal species  Afraid that we will be overwhelmed by these instincts to aggress or pursue sexual impulses  Tend to project it into the outer world as figures of evil  The instincts themselves aren‟t evil but because we‟re frightened of them the projections of the shadow tend to be evil figures o They reflect the idea (implicitly or directly) that we all share these impulses o Story of transformation & the shadow power o Ex Dr Jekyll (nice, meek) & Mr Hyde (lurking, mean)  Author – idea of the story came to him in a dream o Ex Darth Vader – Somehow the projection is about us - Lucas discovers that he is his father Complex – everything about ourselves (conscious experiences, desires, feelings, impressions) that we reject as other not me – something I could never do, something I can never feel.  Inconceivable that I could have those feelings/thoughts etc  The complex pushes us to do/be things that we‟re afraid to do/be  When this otherness breaks out we often say “that wasn‟t myself” “that was very unlike me” “Shadow” = opposite to the ego/persona If we don‟t understand our shadow/don‟t accept & integrate these aspects of ourselves that have formed our shadow, they‟re likely to erupt in bad behaviour. Archetypes themselves aren‟t evil, but because we‟re frightened by these instincts – we project them as dangerous/frightening figures  We‟re afraid that we‟ll be overwhelmed by these powerful instincts  Everybody recognizes that these are strong instincts that need to be controlled The Self – his conceptualization of the self shaped an enormous range of theories after him – picked up by the humanists Archetype – an instinct/desire/motivation for unity/unification, for bringing together, integrating, wholeness  Projected as objects that represent wholeness – gems, diamonds, halos, the circle itself is a perfect symbol (same everywhere); as people – Royal people, concept of God itself is a projection of The Self archetype o We believe in such a being because that being represents wholeness, perfection, unity Complex – Most of us will never have a self complex; doesn‟t exist in most of us. Achieved only when we are able to bring together all of our complexes  Complexes disappear and become one unified whole  To develop a self complex is to integrate all sides of your aspects of personality into one coherent whole where those pieces no longer exist o Self actualization = very highest/positive human motive Self Actualization Two complementary processes that are involved Individuation Learning about, getting to know the various complexes we have in the conscious sense, learn about each of them Usually begins with the Persona, and then very quickly we must get in touch with our contrasexual side  It is only through our contrasexual side, then we will get access to the unconscious Then get to know our Shadow We will become aware of the complexes, individuate them, think about them in a rational way in the conscious. While this is happening, 2nd complementary process is happening The Transcendent Function Remerges the pieces of the memories/ideas that belong to each of the complexes into a larger unified whole If we achieve this, we end up with The Self  Importance of the self – lives at the boundary between conscious and unconscious  Makes us more aware of aspects of our life and allows us to control them  We become aware of all our impulses and are able to deal with them o Ex Star Wars = The Force represents libido, dark side represents The Shadow o We see the full integration of all the various pieces into Luke Skywalker = The Self o Star Wars Trilogy = Story of Luke Skywalkers personal development o Deliberately wrote these movies so they would embody these archetypes  Jung would say the popularity of this series rests on the fact that it allows us to project our archetypes o Allows us to revel in our archetypes‟ If you have A Self complex, you still have a collective unconscious, but your personal unconscious is whole Self actualization is not just about the vital archetypes – involves all of the complexes Individuation can be dangerous – it is the single most difficult process  Have to be ready to accept the truth about yourself Jung‟s Stages of Development His views on development has been largely neglected Has not been a central feature of his theory 4 Stages Childhood – Birth to Adolescence  Libido/motivational energy is devoted to getting along in the world o Learn to talk, walk, interact with the real physical world o As we get closer to adolescence we begin to see more libido towards sexual activity (peaks in adolescence Young Adulthood – Adolescence to age 40  Devoting energy to finding a mate, starting a family, preparing for/starting a career, making money  All the things involved in general life enhancement  Persona is going to be important here – want to be accepted by mate, co- workers, society Middle Age – 40-65 single most important stage  Important because – When Jung wrote about this, he was in his 40s  We‟ve mated, have a career, successful financially, economically we have social status, kids, all of those things that make life valuable – something missing  Philosophically, maybe we‟re not sure where we‟re going o What‟s the value, purpose of my life?  At this stage, more energy will be devoted to philosophical, religious and spiritual concerns o “mid-life crisis”  People try to redefine/fine a purpose in life Old Age – 65 onwards  Decline in our abilities  Leave our job  No longer have same standing in community  Kids have left & are on their own  Jung described it as an isolated, winding down time of life o But Jung lived to 80s and was very active o Didn‟t go back and rethink this – it is possible to contribute in older ages Star Wars Trilogy (original three) Luke Skywalker lives on a planet that represents his own personality Then introduced to archetypal figures  The droids  First droid – CP30 Persona Archetype  Ben Kenobi  Princess Leah represents his female side o She leads him on a quest that will teach him something about who he is 2nd (Empire Strikes Back) Luke is in training under Yoda  Come into grips with The Shadow  Yoga‟s plan represents power of the unconscious o Teaches luke how to get in contact with the force (libido)  “there‟s something out there, what is it?”  “Only what you take with you”  Fights Darth Vader – slices off his head and finds his own face – first encounter with the shadow 3rd Death Star has attacked – Luke has met Darth Vader again and knows he‟s his father  “I know there is good in you”  Luke was originally in white, then black, now black and white  Darth saves Luke‟s life  Luke returns favour & carries dying Darth  See the human/real side of Darth Vader o This is when luke begins to understand At the End  We see Luke with all of his buddies – all have been integrated into Luke‟s self  It‟s about Luke‟s self development Jung‟s Four Functions If you‟re consciously extrovert, unconscious is dominated by introversion Rational Thinking  Judging, evaluating something in external/internal Feeling  Judging or evaluating the emotional tone of some experience Non-Rational Sensing  Detecting the presence of something in the external/internal world Intuiting  Non-evaluative feeling/sense of what is right/wrong/appropriate Ideally we would use all four functions equally  This does not typically happen – we have preferences  There are individuals who are dominated by one particular functions o They use the other, but the one they use the more is one of the four functions  Whatever dominates the conscious, it‟s opposite function of the same kind (rational vs non-rational) dominates the unconscious o Consciously a thinkiner, unconsciously a feeler o Consciously a senser, unconsciously an intuiter If you have a dominant rational function, you will have an auxiliary function of other kind  Ex Conscious: Dominant - Thinker, auxiliary – Inntuiting, Unconscious: Dominant – feeling Type theory buried in Jung‟s Psychodynamic Theory  Really close to Myers Briggs Type Indicator Eight Types Thinking Extrovert  Directed to outside world, paying attention to things around him/her on the outside  Objective, emotionally cool (don‟t show a lot of emotion), very rule governed, dogmatic – things are a certain way  Feeling is repressed in the unconscious  Ex Spock Feeling Extrovert  Feeling dominates the conscious, good at decoding/evaluating the emotions of others (not necessarily their own feelings), concerned of the feelings of others – respect authority, sociable, want to get along with people, want people to be happy  Thinking is repressed in the unconscious – dominates the unconscious  Ex Christmas Past (A Christmas Carol) Sensing Extrovert  Likes new sensory experiences, pleasure-seeking, tend to be realistic about the world  Intuiting is repressed in the unconscious  Ex Ghost of Christmas Present (A Christmas Carol) Intuiting Extrovert  Decides based on hunches/gut feelings  Tend to be very creative, changeable (hunches come and go)  Very familiar with unconscious – that‟s where intuiting comes from Thinking Introvert  Looking inward to the contents of the mind  Like being alone, tend to be very much involved with their own internal thought processes  Don‟t tend to be good in social interactions  Intellectuals – buried in their own thoughts o Ignores the practical life  Ex Albert Einstein  Feeling is repressed Feeling Introvert  Focussed on his/her own emotional states & evaluating them  Quiet, thoughtful, very sensitive, very much aware when things affect their emotional tone  Indifferent to thoughts/feelings of others  Very little expression of emotion  Thinking is repressed – don‟t do a lot of thinking consciously Sensing Introvert  Passive, quiet, calm  Artistic, creative  Detached from people  Rolling with the flow of events rather than trying to control them Intuiting Introvert  Eccentric daydreamer – guided by the unconscious  People don‟t understand them – they have very strange/new ideas  Life is guided by inner rather than outer experiences  Ex Jung may have been an Intuiting Introvert MBTI (Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator) Enormous data that indicates that it is the case that people in different career paths have a tendency to be certain personality types on the MBTI Honours Thesis – 70 students did the MBTI  More than 60% were introverts  Trait theory expects this – students/academics tend to be introverts Pros & Cons of Jung‟s Theory Criticism A lot of criticism is the same directed to Freud Jung worked primarily with individuals who had illnesses  we can‟t trust the generalizations he made from that sample  Jung would argue that when things go wrong – we get a better look at how things work Very difficult to derive testable predictions from Jung‟s theory  Better at postdiction  So many variables – difficult to make predictions His constructs are not clearly defined in ways that make them measurable Critique unique to Jung (Freud was a great writer)  Writing – all over the map  Digresses  Elaborative writer  Difficult to understand Jungian Model is a bit elitist  Self-actualization  Very few people (typically the wealthy) are going to have the time/resources for development o Very few people become self actualized o Focused on other needs  Doesn‟t give everybody an equal chance to reach highest point of self development His writings contained too much religion and spiritualism  He was born into a family full of ministers/philosiphers  He was a believer in psychic phenomenon o He said “I‟m interested in understanding” not necessarily the believing Positive Tremendous positive contribution The Self & Self Actualization is one of his greatest contribution  Humanist More optimistic view on the workings of personality  Goal = moving towards balance, synergy, unity  Everything tends to work together  His view is more about harmony, balance, helping/sharing First personality theorist to emphasize the role of the future & our goals as guiding our current behaviour  Longer term/broader goals for the future  Behaviour is guided to move towards those future goals Jung included Eastern Thinking  Some elements of Buddhism, one of the first to start including that  This is a trend that is continuing today  Jung drew a series of paintings of Mandalas – symbols of the self Maslow & The Humanist Perspective 10/09/2012 05:36:00 BIO (not tested) Born in 1808 in Brooklyn NY Son of Jewish Russian Parents Had a somewhat troubled childhood  Really disliked his mother o Overbearing, domineering, authoritarian, generally unpleasant  Bullied  Spent a lot of time hiding in the local library Decent student in high school  Middle of the pack Completed Bachelor, Masters, PhD in Psychology at University of Wisconsin Afterwards spent a couple of years bumming around  Medical school for a year – didn‟t feel like he belonged  Research assistant (took an IQ test, scored the highest) Worked on project on human sexuality 1937  Faculty member at Brooklyn College Maslow thought that we were focusing too much on the bad aspects of life & psychology  We should focus on the more positive side of psychology  Gestalt was big influence on Maslow – importance of person as a whole Studied the native people in Alberta  Spent next few years studying what it was about them that made them healthy/happy 1951  offered position at Brandeis University o primarily for Jewish students (anti-Semitism at universities in north America) Continued to pursue his work on human health, healthy personality, healthy development 1960s became extremely well known for his work 60s – peace, love, hippies etc  his work became popular for undergraduates  Motivation & Personality  Self development, being all you can be 1963 invited to go to California to spend a few months in manufacturing plant Impressed with company in how they structured their workforce so their workers felt fulfilled, important  Management that improves the psyche of mind o Didn‟t have much of an impact in North America o Very popular among the Japanese o Tremendous resurgence in Japanese industry o 1980s then North America used Maslow‟s work 1969 invited to Stanford doing anything he wanted to do a year later he had a heart attack 62y/o Humanistic Theories Focus on meaning of life for individual  Overall shape, purpose of life, meaning of existence Desire to help individual find understanding, wholeness, meaning Focus on individual‟s unique perception of the world  Focus on uniqueness; individual differences  Each of us live in a slightly different world  In order to understand the individual, have to understand the world in which they live Virtually the only personality theory that takes an ideographic stance Avoid reductionism  Get away from the idea that we can understand something as complex as a human being by breaking it down into its constituent parts  Have to understand them as a whole person  Synthesis > analysis Humanistic Principles 1. The primary study of psychology should be the experiencing person  you as you see and experience the world  focus on individual  how do you see things around you, what are your experiences 2. Choice, creativity, and self-realization… are the concerns of the humanistic psychologist  figuring out who you are  coming to know yourself 3. Only personally and socially significant problems should be studied  there are a lot of things we might know about people, but the only ones we should be concerned with are the ones that are meaningful to the individual, the ones that people are concerned about, ones that will better society as a whole 4. The major concern of psychology is the dignity and enhancement of people  we want to improve things for people  improve the society in which they live  enhance the dignity, worth, value of individuals “Instinctoid” Motivation Human motives are built in & form a part of human nature Maslow called them Instinctoid (instinct-like) motives  Not dominating/uncontrollable o Unlike animal instincts  Can be controlled/repressed/modified  Overlain by learning, cultural expectations etc. Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs We are trying to satisfy different needs at different points of our lives From bottom to top  Physiological, safety, love & belongingness, esteem, self-actualization  Goes from exclusively biological needs (at bottom) to psychological needs (top) Biological Needs  We share this with all animals  Evolutionary/ancient/old need shared with all living species As we move up the pyramid, we share the needs less with all species because these needs are more recent These needs are ontological  Needs at the bottom of the hierarchy shows up instantly; earliest ones in our life o Newborn shows physiological needs  As we age we move up the hierarchy Three ways it is a hierarchy  physiological to psychological  Evolutionary old to evolutionary recent  Developmental - needs that emerge earlier in life & ending with those that emerge later in life This is a gradual staged life development  When one need begins to be satisfied, the next one begins to emerge & so on At any given time (except very very early in life) our behaviour is over determined  We tend to choose behaviours that, whenever possible, will satisfy a number of different needs at a time o Ex going out to lunch – satisfies physiological needs, safety, love & belongingness, esteem o This one action is over determined – simultaneously we will satisfy, at least in part, a number of needs/motives Physiological Needs  Food, water, air  To some degree, sex  Most of us have always had these needs fully met Safety Needs  Isn‟t just shelter, protection etc.  It also means a sense of order, predictability, structure to our lives so that we know what‟s going to happen. We feel safe following a routine  Emerges fairly early in our lives Love & Belongingness  3-4 years of age  Belongingness is easy o we need to feel accepted by others, need to identify with some human group: family, class, neighbourhood, work  Love – just as important to be loving/give love o Need both – give and receive love  This is one area where people fail to get complete satisfaction o A lot of mental disorders stem from difficulty to completely satisfy this need Esteem  Respect from others o We want status, respect, seen by others as valued etc  Respect from self o
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