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abraham maslow (2).docx

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Judith Shedden

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October 17 , 2012 Psych 2B03: Theories of Personality Abraham Maslow (2) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - number of instictoid needs or drives - things that are more malleable, more controllable than instincts - much more shape-able by society - needs emerge in a particular order - small number of individuals in which the needs are reversed - the most common reversal is the top two needs: love and belongingness, and esteem, the two most psychological of those needs - when the bottom level is moved out from under us, normally the rest of the pyramid collapses but there are a couple of exceptions - if you have always had those needs meet we may continue to be motivated by our upper level needs, the pyramid doesn’t collapse - suppose you have grow up without having your physiological or safety needs met, when those needs become met, the individual may be satisfied with only those needs and none of the psychological needs will emerge - other needs existing in every individual from very early in life - cognitive needs: to know, understand, curiosity about the world around us and how it works - aesthetic needs: beauty, order, symmetry, self, some people in whom these aesthetic needs are so dominant that they are made physically ill by them - don’t emerge at any particular time in the hierarchy - while we are working away at these demotives, we have a particular way of interacting with the world - deficiency perception, deficiency cognition, deperception, decognition: very focused only on the things that are relevant to our needs - behaviours tend to be over determined - most significant cause of psychopathology is our failure to meet the needs of love and belongingness - second characteristic of decognition is activity: activity searching our environment for things that will meet our needs - narrowness of focus and intense drive to actively find those things that will satisfy our needs - suppose we have meet all these needs: rare individual, fewer than 1% fully satisfy our demotive needs Exceptions to Hierarchy - esteem comes before love and belongingness - long satisfied need may be undervalued - creativity may overwhelm all other drives - satisfaction of constant lack: higher drives never appear Self-Actualization - no longer meeting needs, we have meet all our needs, everything that we need is there - go beyond need to self-development, begin to become all that we are intended to be - “self-actualization is not a lack or deficiency…it is not something extrinsic that the organism needs for health, as, for example, a tree needs water. Self- actualization is intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what is the organism itself. All trees need sunlight, and all human beings need love, an yet, once satiated with these elementary necessities, each tree and each human being proceeds to develop in its own style, uniquely, using these universal necessities to its own private purpose…development then proceeds from within ra
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