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Biological Bases of Personality (1).docx

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McMaster University
Judith Shedden

November 14 , 2012 Psych 2B03: Theories of Personality Biological Bases of Personality (1) Biological Bases in Other Perspectives - hypothetical constructs - id, collective unconscious, d-motive hierarchy, organismic valuing process and actualising tendency - we recognize that there must be a biological underlying factor - factor/trait theory - cognitive social learning theory does not specifically mention anything about biological bases - how important are biological bases? To what extent do they contribute? - Environment which leads to a particular life path Factors involved in personality - genetics: we receive from our parents genes that may predispose us to certain personality characteristics - environment: particular experiences that we have in life that shape intelligence and personality divided into 2 subtypes  shared environment: variables that shape similarities between people because they are shared among individuals, ex.: siblings, culture  non-shared environment: things that are uniquely experienced by individuals - what fraction of the pie is represented by genetic bases Phenotype and genotype - phenotype: set of observable and measurable characteristics that we have - genotype: set of genes we receive from our parents - to what extent is our phenotype shaped or determined by our genotype MZ and DZ twins - known genotype, asses how phenotypes are related to their genotypes - based on correlations between individuals of different levels of genotypic variability - monozygotic: 100% identical, single fertilized egg splits in two, share exactly the same genes - dizygotic: 50% identical, developed from two separately fertilized eggs - resemblance assuming 100% genetic determination of MZ:  MZ reared together  MZ reared apart  What do we expect to see in terms of there correlation?  If 100% determined by genes, wherever they are reared the correlation should be r = 1.00  Any deviation from this pattern would indicate environmental influence therefore there would be a lower correlation in those reared apart  MZ apart: r=1.00,
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