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Factor Analytic Trait Theories (3).docx

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Judith Shedden

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November 12 , 2012 Psych 2B03: Theories of Personality Factor Analytic Trait Theories (3) Cultural Differences in Big 5 - even though we think of trait theorist as biologically based, they can be fixed and unchangeable - shifts in traits as we age: different genes become active or cease to be active - European/American  higher in average extroversion, lower in introversion (Africa, Asia)  higher in openness  lower in agreeableness - typically self-reported levels, bias to a certain degree, based on cultural preferences for certain things - assumption: differences due to genetically based differences, different gene pool - evidence comparing Asian and European/north American for biological difference in other aspects such as temperament: because the differences occur at birth it is thought to be genetic Zuckerman & Kulman’s Alternate Five - sociability (extraversion) - neuroticism/anxiety - impulsive sensation seeking: what Zuckerman spent most of his life studying - aggression/hostility - activity (in part related to openness) - very similar to big five model Zuckerman’s biological model - wants to hypothesize what it is about the individual physiology that makes them take position in the five factors - sees factors as correlated traits related to underlying cognitive/behavioural processes related to emotional states based on physiology (structure and operation of the brain) related to neurotransmitter activity and genes - difference between Eysenck: focus primarily on the electrical activity of the brain whereas Zuckerman focuses on brain chemistry - dopamine system which underlies extraversion Low blood platelet MAO and Alternate 5 - brain of extroverts tend to be under aroused in terms of activity of the dopamine using neurons - not enough dopamine activity and too much in introverts - can’t directly asses the level of dopamine activity - MAO: chemical found in between the neurons that functions to break down the neurotransmitters, reducing the amount of activity at the synapses working on dopamine - If MAO is very active it means that dopamine systems are going to be less active - Low MAO indicate high levels of MAO activity, dopamine using synapses are busier - Can’t measure MAO directly but can find it in blood platelets - Positively associated with (lower blood platelet MAO):  Impulsive sensation-seeking  Sociability  Aggression-hostility - correlated with:  chronic marijuana use  chronic schizophre
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