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PSYCH 2B03 (299)

Maslow 2013

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

Abraham Maslow Humanistic Theories  Focus on meaning of life for individual (sense of purpose, meaning in life, fulfillment)  Desire to help person achieve understanding, wholeness, meaning (to be self-actualized)  Focus on individual’s unique perception of the world (what are they paying attention to?)  Avoid reductionism (focus on bigger picture instead of breaking into pieces, understand as whole)  More idiographic (about individual) than other approaches Humanistic principles 1.“the primary study of psychology should be the experiencing person” how do you see/experimence things 2.“choice, creativity, and self-realization are the concerns of the humanistic psychologists” 3.“only personally and socially significant problems should be studied” We want to know things only if it is important to people (socially relevant) 4.“the major concern of psychology is the dignity and enhancement of people” “Instinctoid” Motivation  Instinctoid = Like instinct  Not dominating, uncontrollable (unlike animal instincts)  Can be controlled, repressed  Overlain by learning, cultural expectations, etc Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Bottom Top: biological psychological, earlier late (In life), old recent (evolutionarily)  Physiological needs (survival): air, shelter, water, food, sleep sex  Safety and security  predictable and order, free from threat  when not met, causes OCD, which will make us feel safe and bring structure to our lives  Love and belongingness needs  Want to identify with others, to belong to another group  can survive without  love: receive love from others and give love to others  failure these needs is the single most cause to misery/problems  can cause depression, anxiety, eating disorder  might never be fully satisfied  Esteem Needs  need to be respected and valued by others and also need to have self-esteem both in equal measure  fail to meet these needs will cause psychological problems (not a severe as love and belonging  Self-Actualization  It is not a lack or deficiency, it is an addition (growth)  It is intrinsic growth, it is a fuller realization and development of one’s personal potential  To behave purely spontaneously (wise innocence, child-like)  “to be all you can be”  Fulfillment of destiny  It is an ongoing actualization  Only about 1% of people get beyond and reach self-actualization  Most that isn’t self-actualized haven’t fulfilled the lower part of the pyramid  Extra needs that didn’t fit in the pyramid  Cognitive needs o Need to explore, to know o Some have a lot and shown very early and some does not  Aesthetic needs o Needs for beauty, need for symmetry o some have a lot and shown very early and some does not * They lie outside the hierarchy, appear early on in life and constant through life, in lesser degree  One cannot skip a step in the pyramid  When a lower need, previously satisfied need is suddenly no longer being satisfied, pyramid would collapse, and you will begin to worry only about the lower needs  One set of needs doesn’t need to be completely fulfilled in order to move onto the next  When about 20%-30% of the needs in a section is met, the need from the next section begin to emerge  We do things that simultaneously cover almost all needs or multiple needs  Exceptions to Hierarchy  Esteem can comes before love and belongingness  Long satisfied need may be undervalued, even when said need is not met, it will not collapse the pyramid E.g. working/volunteering overseas where food and safety is not met would not cause you to only start worrying about those needs and abandon your higher needs  Creativity may overwhelm all other drives (to the point where you would sacrifice all other needs) E.g. starving artists rather buy paint than buy food  Satisfaction of constant lack: higher drives never appear  Decognition motives:  Behaviors driven by needs lower in the hierarchy  They are driven and active (digging, scratching, searching, hunting)  It is also narrowly focused; focused only on things relevant to needs  Increased focus with increased need  Becognition motives:  Behaviors witnessed after reaching self-actualization  They are “passive” behaviors, moving calmly through life  Openness to experience and wide focus (mindfulness)  Peak experiences: Intense moments of becognition o They could be a period of few minutes or hours o It could be reached by people who are not self-actualized o It is a short period of time at which you feel wonder about the world, losing sense of time and space (time can pass faster or slower) o Sense of loss of control and timelessness, you feel powerless to the universe but powerful to change you’re self o After a peak experience, you feel fundamentally changed for a period of time
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