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PSYCH 2B03 (299)

Albert Bandura & Walter Mischel 2013

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Richard B Day

Albert Bandura & Walter Mischel History of Behaviorism  John B. Watson: Radical Behaviorism  The problem with introspection is that we don’t know if the results we are getting from the subjects are accurate, we need something that can be verified  Our methods should be to study behavior because it can be verified and seen but everyone  He proposed radical behavior: he believed that everything that we thought is mental is actually physical; denied the existence of the mind  E.L. Thorndike: Instrumental learning  Initial goal was to quantify the intelligence level of animals (e.g. puzzle box)  The process of learning was a gradual, animals learned little by little  Instrumental learning: learning based on consequences (good or bad)  General Learning Theory: modeling of behaviors using mathematical models  Clark Hull  Kenneth Spence  B.F. Skinner: Radical behaviorism return  Interested in instrumental learning, focused on the change in frequency of behavior based on the schedule of reinforcement  Believed in radical behaviorism, should make input output catalog of behaviors  Studies in memory suggested thinking, which did not support his theories History of Cognitivism  Alan Turing: Digital computer metaphor for mind  there are little programs within the mind that runs like a computer  they can manipulate information received and give output  What is happening inside the mind?  Donald Broadbent: Selective Attention  Why did operators miss the dots on the radar?  After the war he continued to work on selective attention but focused on auditory (cocktail party)  Multistore model of memory (short term and long term memory) based selective attention model made by Broadbent and colleagues Michel’s Critique of Traits  “personality and Assessment” (1968) published book critiquing the trait approach  Trait – Behavior correlation = .30 correlation very low, 10% according to trait  Behavior – Behavior correlation = .30 low level of consistence between behavior and behavior in a situation  He concluded that highly generalized behavioral consistencies have not been demonstrated with the concept of personality traits  Challenge the trait approach theorists to broaden their research Reciprocal Determinism  It is either just situation or just the person that determine the behavior, it is a reciprocal of both  Individual evaluates the situation through the use of social learning person learning variable (internal process)  This internal process looks at the what we want it to happen, what the outcomes could be, and the consequences  After evaluating the information, the person choices a behavior  The behavior that we choice will then alter the situation and makes it different E.g. theatre: sit there quietly or yell “fire” 2 behaviors will give different outcomes to what happens next  Now the situation is reevaluated taking in the outcomes from previous time, and the cycle will continue with many more reevaluations and altering of situations  Therefore, behaviors shape situations and situations shape behaviors  In certain situations, situation shapes more behavior or vice versa Social Learning Person Variables  Definitely not traits (they are internal and variables, but they are not built in determinates/biological)  Determine which stimuli are perceived (noticed), and acted upon (interpret)  Active cognitive processes (internal), operating in the present (not pre-determined by past events, change day to day; variables)  Generated by social learning experiences (also include classical/instrumental conditioning that play smaller part)  Personal change is possible because these variable can be changed through social learning  Includes 5 set of variables: 1. Competency and Self-Efficacy o A set of beliefs that we have about the skills, abilities and talents that we have (e.g. interpersonal skills, work, academics) o The most studied out of the 5 variables because it makes a big difference in choice
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