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2 B03 Lecture 3

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

1 Jan 09/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 Lecture 3 • Last class discusses perspective in personality • Perspective is not a theory, it’s the frame work in which a theory can be constructed • Each perspective accepts certain things to be true about the nature, the development and about the nature of personality and different theories which accept those same assumptions can exist within a single perspective • There are no behaviours theory, because they don’t think that the construct of personality is necessary or useful • For them personality is just a set of consistent and learned behaviour patents, so no need for new word for that, because we study that all the time • We are roughly talking about these approaches in the order that they were first developed HumanistApproach • Developed in 1950s or 1960s • Most difficult to describe • Rogers and Maslow main theorists in this approach • The most distinctive of all the perspective we’ve talked about • Begins with the notion that each individual being is unique and completely different from any other human being in terms of everything • Hey argue that each of us inhibits a slightly different world from every other individual, even when we are sitting side by side, we are paying attention to different things, thinking differently etc • We are in our own little word, even though it overlaps with the world of those near us • In order to understand we must enter and comprehend the world in which he/she lives • They also believe that a central construct is the notion of the Self, comes from Young’s Theory • The Self is a manifestation of inner unity, inner coherence, it’s all those things that belongs to us, all those experiences, sensations, feelings that we identify as mine and me 2 Jan 09/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 • And the central part of the humanist theory is to look at the development, the growth, the enhancement of that self • To find way to help individuals understand who they are, what are their potentials, capacities, abilities are and to help them fully realize those potentials, to be all that we can be, to grow into ourselves, to be fully who we are, that’s is the goal of humanist psychology • It’s a positive view of people, all people are good basically, when things go bad there are external reasons for that, we are all born good • They also stress the important for each individual and for those who seek help of meaningfulness • They say we need a sense of purpose, meaning and set of goals, what are we doing here, what is the purpose and where should we be going • Most humanists are in clinical practice or psycho therapy and their goal is to help people create or find that meaning and to direct their lives in ways that help enhance the meaningfulness of their lives • We talked about the Nomathetic vs. the IdiographicApproach • All the other theories apart from the Humanist approach take the NomatheticApproach, that is they are interested in people as a representative of all the other people, we learn from the individual things that we can generalize to others we deal with • The Humanists say No, the purpose of understanding each individual is to understand the individual, each of us is unique, and by only understanding each individual fully that we can help that person realize their full potential, desires and goal and to find meaning in their life • Maslow and Carl Rogers CognitiveApproach • Came in the late 1950s and early 1960s • Now dominant approach in most areas of psychology • Simple yet riches view of personality • Just like the behaviourists say that personality is nothing less or more than consistent patterns of behaviour, the cognitive say that personality is nothing less or more than consistent patterns of thinking 3 Jan 09/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 • Consistent ways in which we select and interpret the information from the world • Our ways of selecting and interpreting information is what makes us who we are • Those interpretations lead to certain behaviours or others, but the focus here is on the cognitive side of things, how do we think about the world and ourselves • Essentially they are saying “we are what we think”, that’s what makes us different from others, we think slightly differently than anyone else, and that thought pattern is our personality • Cognitives just like the Behaviorists strongly emphasize the important of experience and learning in producing these tendencies to select and interpret information • We can modify who we are by changing the way we think and that’s the link between the cognitive and the behaviorist, they both emphasize the importance and possibility of change through learning and experiences and that is why cognitive behavioral therapy so common today, which brings together the behaviourist and cognitive approach together. • Both the behaviourist and the Cognitive believe in the strong possibility of change in personality, all you have to do is change your behaviour or ways of thinking and you have beco
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