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2B03 Lecture 4

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

1 Jan 13/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 Lecture 4 • Psychoanalysis is a changing/evolving concept of personality • What his theory says is that if we think of the mind as operating in these ways, lots of things make sense • Nothing we will talk about is real • Freud’s theory is full of hypothetical constructs not one of which was advised were suggested by him • He found a way to bring these hypothetical constructs together in a way that makes sense • In trying to understand human motives, why is it that people do what they do? Freud went back to an ancient idea of Hedonism • Hedonism means that the sole and total goal of human existence is the seeking out of pleasure, we are motivated entirely by desire to experience pleasure and to minimize unpleasure • Freud said this desire to maximize pleasure and minimize unpleasure is guided by 2 instincts, which he called Erous (Greek Name) ->1) Sexuality and 2)Aggression ( formed in trying to understand the cause of WW2 Freud hypothesized a second instinct which he called Thanatos - death instinct, instinct to return to a time where there is no desires or instincts) That was then transformed by his colleagues to an instinct of aggression) • He also borrowed info from physics, he said just like all words in the physical world requires energy so does it also in the psychological rhyme, psyche meaning the energy of the mind • Freud Hypothesized the existence of an energy source within the mind which he called LIBIDO and he believed this energy source powered most activity primarily by sex and activities powered primarily by the aggressive instinct • Libido means ‘I will please’, which is a perfect name for energy based on gaining sexual pleasure • One implication of this view is that these are the only motives, only reasons that we do anything no matter what it is. They are all motivated by the desire to seek pleasure and that pleasure is either sexual or aggressive no matter where the pleasure comes from • The issue for Freud is can these 2 instincts carry the burden for every single matter and human being, his answer is Yes 2 Jan 13/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 • He says everything is in fact a sexual pleasure • Examples that illustrate this is a scene from the movie I met Sally. In this scene they have been discussing their sex life and he says he has had many women and she said she hasn’t had many men and she asks how do you know they were pleased. She then fakes an orgasm and when she is done and then proceeds eating her lunch. The waitress comes over to this women in background and ask what will you be having and she points to sally and says I want what she is having, she mistakes her fake organism to her reaction to her lunch. Freud says you mistake the reaction because it’s ultimately the same pleasure. • The other thing Freud’s views suggest is that libido carries energy that drives both the sexual and aggressive urges and argues that most of behaviour we engage in is simultaneously fulfilling our desires for sex and aggression • An example is scene from movie Top Gun, one of the pilots says I can tell we are getting closing to enemy I got a hard on. Link between sex and aggression • Neuroscience backs Freud up, if you look at brain areas activated by aggressive impulses, they are the same ones activated by food, drinking and sex • That’s Freud’s notion about motivation (the above) • Every use of libido according to Freud includes the combination of sex and aggression • (that’s the motivational model) • Structures and behaviour model, which Freud believe did not existed ID – Latin word for it, only structure that exists when we are born, ther for human nature that we are searching for in personality, all humans share this - Its function is to translate need into drive, there are lots of things we need for which we have no drive, for example Oxygen, some nutrients. No drive because chances of us being in a place with no oxygen is like 0, evolution has not equipped us with that need to have drive for Oxygen - ID has little contact with the outside world, it’s barried deep in the unconscious, it’s out of touch with the world, the mind can store images of the outside world, auditory and visual images are stored in the brain somewhere and the ID can access those memories of the outside world - Has no sense of how the world works 3 Jan 13/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 - Doesn’t know the consequences of the behaviour of the individuals - It has no sense of time, it is always NOW for the ID - When it translated need into a drive it wants that drive to be satisfied now - The structure of the ID is very limited but it does contain all of our libido, every bit of
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