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Lecture 8

2B03 Lecture 8

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Richard B Day

1 Jan 22/2014 Dr. Day, Personality, 2B03, C03 Lecture 8 Freud and Psychoanalysis • Fixation shape the content and nature and expression of adult sexuality, orienting them toward erogenous zones in which the fixation has occurred • Likewise they shape symbolically individuals personality • There comes times in our lives when we are frustrated in our ability of getting gratification using normal adults modes of the secondary process and in those case sometimes we regress – we wall fall back in earlier even childhood forms of gaining gratification. • The point to which we regress is also shaped by these Fixations. If we are fixated at an Oral stage, we will fall back at earlier form of oral gratification, eating. We over eat if we are frustrated. • The other thing that Fixations determine is cases in which psychological issues or concerns end up being expressed as physical symptoms. For example if we have an anal fixation we might develop cases of Diarrhea if are anal expulsive or constipation if we are anal retentive. Thos are expressions in our erogenous zones of psychological problems. Oral people might develop digestive problems, vomiting etc Ego andAnxiety • We want to see the 3 psychic structures are working together to maneuver us towards pleasure and reduce pain. The main executive that directs that movement is the Ego, both the unconscious and the conscious. • The Ego is guided by the need to minimize a very negative experience and anxiety. • Freud identifies 3 sources of anxiety 1) Things out there in the real World: RealityAnxiety - Fears or concerns that something bad is going to happen based on the outside world. - Only the conscious ego experiences anxiety, because anxiety is a conscious experience 2) Superego: MoralAnxiety – when we are doing something that is contrary to the conscious part of the Superego. The Superego injects anxiety into the conscious ego and we feel bad and anxious. 2 Jan 22/2014 Dr. Day, Personality, 2B03, C03 3) Id: NeuroticAnxiety - We also develop anxiety if sense that a powerful id impulse is about to overwhelm the ego and we will get in. That fear of giving in to the Id impulse. The role of the unconscious ego is to prevent the conscious ego from experiencing anxiety. • There are 2 ways that Freud said we can deal with anxiety 1) We can make it conscious and rationally and consciously use all the power of our conscious ego to formulate a plan that will lead to gratification of the impulse without the danger. This is the ideal; this is what psychotherapy was about, bringing it to consciousness and dealing with it rationally. 2) Another way is for the unconscious ego to disguise the reality, preventing the conscious ego from understanding what the real situation is. If it doesn’t understand the consequence, then there is no anxiety. This is an irrational way of dealing with anxiety, distorting the reality understanding of one part of them mind that the conscious ego has. During the therapy at one hand the patient wants to be there, but the conscious ego wants to leave so it doesn’t get to the reality, because it would lead to anxiety and to prevent the discovery of it defence mechanism • So we have unconscious ego placing defence mechanism, design to distort the conscious ego’s understanding the situation and preventing anxiety • Freud said all the anxiety we experience stems from the very first anxiety that we have in childhood, which he said to be the Birth Trauma. • Freud argued that if you experience minimal anxiety when you are born then you will not have strong sense of anxiety later on in adulthood Defense Mechanisms Repression • First major repression is put in place as part of the resolution of the Oedipus Complex. Boy for example, thinking about possessing mother will lead to negative consequences. So the unconscious ego places a barrier preventing Id from cathexing libido to the image of mother. • So the way it works, is that you as the ego cannot invest libido in forbidden image, prevented by the unconscious ego. The conscious ego is not aware of any of that, because the id cannot produce the image the way it used to. So no anxiety results here. 3 Jan 22/2014 Dr. Day, Personality, 2B03, C03 • Problem is that it doesn’t achieve much, it uses up libido in building this barrier (anticathexus). So you are limiting your opportunities to gain pleasure by having to invest the libido into the barrier. • Another problem is that it doesn’t provide an alternativ
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