Jan 11 Soc Psych
- Why did you find what you expected to find?
o Finding only what we expected to find (bias in design in experiment, way we talk to
subject, (simply asking questions may change behavior in subjects)
o Blind experiments (the experimenters being aware or unaware to hypothesis,
experimenters may subconsciously emphasize certain instructions, and leading them in
the direction of the hypothesis, if they are unblind (knows hypothesis).
o Experimental Demand (aka, Demand) – subject knowing what you want and doing it.
Why did you find what you found?
Want to avoid this
Want subject not discover your true hypothesis (use cover story)
Blind Ss Cover stories
Cover story must misdirect without effecting the behavior of subjects
that effects hypothesis
How to Create your own findings (Vokey and Read 1985)
- Confirmation bias and demand often work together
o Judas Priest song played backward -*do it, do it* suicide case and parents sue
- Ss listen to backwards – recorded passages from the Bible and Jabberwocky
- IV: Instruction
o Group 1 (not primed to hear satanic messages) “ tell us what you hear in this
o Group 2 (primed to hear satanic messages) “do you hear any Satanic phrases?”
- DV: % of Ss whos report hearing Satanic Messages
o Group 1 Results – only 1% of subjects reported satanic messages (nothing)
o Group2 resuts – 90% reported satanic messages
Created results to demand, the question frames the result and behavior of the
Ask questions like Group 1 not Group 2, due to question creating misleading
Whe’ve Collected Our Data: Now What?
- Analysis of data to determine wheather your findings are statistically significant
o E.g, mean differences tets
Is group A statiscially different from group B?
If not, then if isn’t different even if it looks different on a graph?
- E.g. Correlations test
o Does group or factor A have a statiscially significant relationship with group or factor B?
- Statistical Vs. “real-life” significance
o Ex: levels of depression score from 17 and 16. Statistically significant, but in real life, its
about the same
- Human Subjects: o Institutional review board approval –deception must be justified
o Informed consent- must hide hypothesis in consent form (which may give away)
o Debriefing after experiments- explaining the experiment to the subject after experiment
is done to avoid stress after experiment if any.
Social Influence 1: Conformity
- Society views as negative
- Viewed as ridiculous as sheep like behavior
- But it is socially important behavior, keeps society functional
- Conform to cultural norms
- The need to fit in is a basic human need
o From evolutionary perspective – without conforming to norms, they might not receive
help, because they m