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Jan 21 & 25 SocPsych.docx

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Social Influence 3: Obedience to authority Reasons for the Experiment 1: Making Asch Meaningful - Putting line judgment task to a more real life situation - -showing conformity when then issue is more controversial Understanding “Evil” - Adolf Eichmann, - Ordinary people do thing that are incrediable evil, but have no psychological problems - Milgram wanted to get ordinary people without any psychological problem, to do things that harm others Basic Findings - Operationalization of “Obedience” o Must shock learner till the end will the instruction of the experimentor o Only thing that made them not obedient was disobeying the experimentor to stop experiment o Predictions  Experts thought only 1-3 % would be obedient o Results  65% obeyed  No gender difference  No cross cultural differences  100% obeyed up to 105 volts v. (baseline version)  150v “point of no return”  80% who don’t stop here are fully obedient Learners schedule of protest 1 - 75: “ugh” (learners first pain response some at 90 & 105) - 120v “ugh hey this really hurts” - 150v “ugh my heart hurts I refuse to continue I want to go home stop the experiment, I told you I had a heart problem” - 210v “I don’t want to be a part of this anymore - 330v “ repeating what he heard - 345v “ no response” Experimentor‘s schedule of prods - Prod 1 – please continue please go on - Prod 2 – the experiment requires that you continue (depersonalizes *science requires you to continue, not me) - Prod 3 – “it is absoloubtly essential you continue (its for science) - Prod 4 – “You have no other choice, you must go on” o Must say no to experimenter in all the prods and again another time. Outline: Why did they Obey? - Slippery slope (theory, not tested)  Each increment feels like its too small to stop going up only by 15v  Mental limit, “ im not going over 250v”  Ex: buying a $100 book vs. buying little $5 books, and getting carried away  Smaller the increment the more difficulty to identify where to stop  To test this hypothesis – you need to change the different increments  Small increments = don’t know when to stop - Reasons with statistical support: o Proximity to the victim  Obedience level with voice cues (Baseline)65%  Obedience level without voice cues (no significant difference to BL)  Obedience level teacher/learner same room (goes down significantly)  Obedience level teacher/learner touch (significant decrease again)  Adolf Eichmann, rubber stamping felt no remorse because he was in an increased distance from the Jews (he was ordering the kills from another location) o Proximity to experimenter  Authority power seems to increase when they are closer and weaker when further away  Obedience and distance, experimenter in room (baseline)  Obedience and distance, experimenter giving instructions on phone(decreased obedience)  Embarrassing to disobey someone in real life, than someone who is on the phone/not in person  (BL) (65%)Embarrassment with challenging the experimenter, (phone) (15%) obedience goes down. o Authority
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