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Psych 2C03 Review Session 1.docx

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McMaster University

Psych 2C03 Review Session: Midterm 1 January 28, 2011 General Study Advice - Try to be clear and concise You need to show you understand - The concept - The experiment IV and DV methods results and conclusion 1. Question1 Bob is interested in studying whether people are more likely to help a woman or a man whose car is broken down on the side of the road. He setup an experiment, where in some conditions a man is a confederate and in another condition a woman is. He recorded the number of people who helped for each condition What type of experimental design is this? Are the benefits and drawbacks of this design? Answer: Quasi and Field experiment Quasi: no random assignment for at least one variable - Eg. Gender age intelligence etc. - Can be done in real world in the lab Field outside of lab - Can have random assignment of some variables - Less control of environment Benefits for both: higher external validity real people real world Drawback of both lower internal validity less control cant conclude causality 2. Question 2 Dr. Hortons believes that caffeine increased performance levels, she designed an experiment to test this idea, in her experiment, two Ss come in at a given time, one S gets a cup of coffee and one doesn’t in the same room. The experimenter asked them to perform a task and measure their performance, based on the findings Dr. Hortons then concludes that caffeine improves performance what are some problems associated with this design? Answer: Experimental Demand: Ss develop theories about what you expect and act accordingly - In this example Confirmation bias: Experimenter bias to confirm pre-existing hypothesis – in this example- - A better design? o Doing a double blind where experimenter or subject doesn’t know 3. Question 3 Describe the original Asch Experiment (IV, DV, methods, results) and explain which type of pressure was being experienced and why? Answer: IV: S alone or Subject in a group of confederates DV: 1) % of accuracy of line judgment (alone) and 2)% of conformity in a group Method: Asch’s design 7 people in total subject sat in the 6 seat and the answers were said out loud Results: significantly reduced accuracy within the croup 1/3 of Ss conformed for majority of trials ¾ of Ss conformed at least once ¼ never conformed 3.1 Which type of pressure and describe an alteration of the study that supports your answer Answer: Normative pressure fear of embarrassment, no internalization 1 confederate, 5 Ss variation Private answer variation 4.Question 4 Describe an experiment discussed in class which demonstrates diffusion of responsibility (not pluralistic ignorance). Make sure to include IV DV methods results and conclusion Answer: -not pluralistic ignorance because they can’t see each other. IV: # of witnesses (1,3, 5 ) DV: 1. % of helping within 2 mins before Ss could talk and 2. Time to help in seconds Results: 1 subject- much higher chance they would help 3 – helping decreases 5 – helping decreases more 4.1 Question 4.1 How does this experiment differentiate between diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance? What is the difference between the two? Pluralistic ignorance: in an ambiguous situation, turn to others for behavioral hints in collective misinterpretation of one another’s behavior Diffusion of Responsibility: failure to help people in need because assume someone else will do it In the seizure scenario: emergency situation is clear count not turn to one another to see what to do. 5. Question 5 George is a new student and mcmaster and has a severe nut allergy. George’s greatest fear is that he will have an allergic reaction while at school and that no one will know to help him. Describing strategies ( and give an example for each) that George might need to use to overcome the social influence. Answer To overcome pluralistic ignorance
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