Psych 2C03 Review Session: Midterm 1
January 28, 2011
General Study Advice
- Try to be clear and concise
You need to show you understand
- The concept
- The experiment IV and DV methods results and conclusion
Bob is interested in studying whether people are more likely to help a woman or a man whose car is
broken down on the side of the road. He setup an experiment, where in some conditions a man is a
confederate and in another condition a woman is. He recorded the number of people who helped for
What type of experimental design is this? Are the benefits and drawbacks of this design?
Quasi and Field experiment
Quasi: no random assignment for at least one variable
- Eg. Gender age intelligence etc.
- Can be done in real world in the lab
Field outside of lab
- Can have random assignment of some variables
- Less control of environment
Benefits for both: higher external validity real people real world
Drawback of both lower internal validity less control cant conclude causality 2. Question 2
Dr. Hortons believes that caffeine increased performance levels, she designed an experiment to test this
idea, in her experiment, two Ss come in at a given time, one S gets a cup of coffee and one doesn’t in the
same room. The experimenter asked them to perform a task and measure their performance, based on
the findings Dr. Hortons then concludes that caffeine improves performance what are some problems
associated with this design?
Experimental Demand: Ss develop theories about what you expect and act accordingly
- In this example
Confirmation bias: Experimenter bias to confirm pre-existing hypothesis – in this example-
- A better design?
o Doing a double blind where experimenter or subject doesn’t know
3. Question 3
Describe the original Asch Experiment (IV, DV, methods, results) and explain which type of pressure was
being experienced and why?
IV: S alone or Subject in a group of confederates
DV: 1) % of accuracy of line judgment (alone) and 2)% of conformity in a group
Method: Asch’s design
7 people in total subject sat in the 6 seat and the answers were said out loud
Results: significantly reduced accuracy within the croup
1/3 of Ss conformed for majority of trials
¾ of Ss conformed at least once
¼ never conformed 3.1
Which type of pressure and describe an alteration of the study that supports your answer
Normative pressure fear of embarrassment, no internalization
1 confederate, 5 Ss variation
Private answer variation
Describe an experiment discussed in class which demonstrates diffusion of responsibility (not pluralistic
ignorance). Make sure to include IV DV methods results and conclusion
-not pluralistic ignorance because they can’t see each other.
IV: # of witnesses (1,3, 5 )
1. % of helping within 2 mins before Ss could talk and
2. Time to help in seconds
1 subject- much higher chance they would help
3 – helping decreases
5 – helping decreases more
4.1 Question 4.1
How does this experiment differentiate between diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance?
What is the difference between the two?
Pluralistic ignorance: in an ambiguous situation, turn to others for behavioral hints in collective
misinterpretation of one another’s behavior
Diffusion of Responsibility: failure to help people in need because assume someone else will do it
In the seizure scenario: emergency situation is clear count not turn to one another to see what to do. 5. Question 5
George is a new student and mcmaster and has a severe nut allergy. George’s greatest fear is that he
will have an allergic reaction while at school and that no one will know to help him. Describing strategies
( and give an example for each) that George might need to use to overcome the social influence.
To overcome pluralistic ignorance