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social psych lec 4.docx

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McMaster University
Jennifer Ostovich

CONFORMITY PART 3 Reasons for the Experiments 1: Making Asch Meaningful  Very high rates of compliance o At the time people were just thinking it was just line judgements o His data were not meaningful and not real world applications because just testing subjects with lines  Milgrim took experiment to next level and decided subject will shock someone based on getting the answer right or wrong Reasons for the Experiments 2: Understanding "Evil"  People do bad things, relatively normal people do evil things  What makes sane people comply? " I was just following orders" Milgram's Experimental Set-up  Subjects arrive at yale University to an experiment  One learner and one teacher  Subject was always teacher, confederate was always the learner  Shock generater 15voltz to severe shocks, get hooked up to shock generator in front of teacher  Leaner has to learn all the word pairs and teacher test him with if he can pair with the word given  Every time the learner gets answer wrong voltage goes up, no teacher enjoyed this experiment Results  65% of subjects were obedient Extra (not shown in video) Learner's schedule of Protests 1  75: "ugh" (learner's first pain response)  120: "ugh! Hey this really hurts"  150: "ugh!! Experimenter! That’s it. Get me out of here. I told you I had heart trouble. My heart's starting to bother me now. Let me out  195: similar to 150  210: "ugh experimenter get me out of here  300: (agonized screaming)  315: intensely agonized scream)  330: (intense and proloned agonized scream  345+: silence +failure to answer word-pair questions  Situational Pressure Experimenter's Schedule of Prods  Give learner shock, teacher thinks that's not good  Prod1: "please continue or please go on"  Learner screams and teacher say I think we should stop  Prod2: "The experiment requires that you continue"  Prod 3:"it is absolutely essential that you continue"  Prod 4:"you have no other choice you have to continue" o If you say no 5 times in a row to authority figure you can get out of experiment Basic Findings  operationalization "obedience" o Only obedient when the experimenter says it is over.  Ex. Guy switched on last voltage and said he was done, experimenter said no keep pressing the last voltage, guy obeyed; means he was obedient if he rejected and answered 5 no's in a row not obedient  Predictions o Experts thought only 1-3% would be obedient  Results o 65% obeyed o No gender difference o No cross cultural differences o 100% obeyed up to 105 V o 150 V "point of no return"  80% who don't stop here are fully obedient  Normative pressure Outline: Why did they obey?  Slipper slope (theory, not tested)  Anything you do in small increments can get you into something huge  Ex. 15V - 60V leads you to 150V and so on  It's only 15 voltz increments when do they stop?  Didn’t notice it's just another 15 voltz and don't realize until the sum is huge  What's 335V when you hit 350V it's "only" 15V so they don't feel that big of a difference  Can be more obedience with smaller increments rather than larger ones  Reasons with statistical support: o Proximity to the victim  Easier to hurt someone who you don't have to touch and someone you can't see o Proximity to the experimenter  Voice Cues (BaseLine)- (look at script Prod) 65% obedience  No voice cues- 70% obedience  Therefore voice cues did not matter  Physical difference: Same room- 40%  Touching distance (teacher had to press learner's hand onto electric shocker)- 20%  Physical proximity- depersonalization- when your in same room its hard to make them unreal  Proximity to the experimenter- Baseline: 65%  Over the phone: 15%  Normative p
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