CONFORMITY PART 3
Reasons for the Experiments 1: Making Asch Meaningful
Very high rates of compliance
o At the time people were just thinking it was just line judgements
o His data were not meaningful and not real world applications because just testing subjects
Milgrim took experiment to next level and decided subject will shock someone based on getting
the answer right or wrong
Reasons for the Experiments 2: Understanding "Evil"
People do bad things, relatively normal people do evil things
What makes sane people comply? " I was just following orders"
Milgram's Experimental Set-up
Subjects arrive at yale University to an experiment
One learner and one teacher
Subject was always teacher, confederate was always the learner
Shock generater 15voltz to severe shocks, get hooked up to shock generator in front of teacher
Leaner has to learn all the word pairs and teacher test him with if he can pair with the word given
Every time the learner gets answer wrong voltage goes up, no teacher enjoyed this experiment
65% of subjects were obedient
Extra (not shown in video)
Learner's schedule of Protests 1
75: "ugh" (learner's first pain response)
120: "ugh! Hey this really hurts"
150: "ugh!! Experimenter! That’s it. Get me out of here. I told you I had heart trouble. My heart's
starting to bother me now. Let me out
195: similar to 150
210: "ugh experimenter get me out of here
300: (agonized screaming)
315: intensely agonized scream)
330: (intense and proloned agonized scream
345+: silence +failure to answer word-pair questions
Experimenter's Schedule of Prods
Give learner shock, teacher thinks that's not good
Prod1: "please continue or please go on"
Learner screams and teacher say I think we should stop
Prod2: "The experiment requires that you continue"
Prod 3:"it is absolutely essential that you continue"
Prod 4:"you have no other choice you have to continue"
o If you say no 5 times in a row to authority figure you can get out of experiment
Basic Findings operationalization "obedience"
o Only obedient when the experimenter says it is over.
Ex. Guy switched on last voltage and said he was done, experimenter said no keep
pressing the last voltage, guy obeyed; means he was obedient if he rejected and
answered 5 no's in a row not obedient
o Experts thought only 1-3% would be obedient
o 65% obeyed
o No gender difference
o No cross cultural differences
o 100% obeyed up to 105 V
o 150 V "point of no return"
80% who don't stop here are fully obedient
Outline: Why did they obey?
Slipper slope (theory, not tested)
Anything you do in small increments can get you into something huge
Ex. 15V - 60V leads you to 150V and so on
It's only 15 voltz increments when do they stop?
Didn’t notice it's just another 15 voltz and don't realize until the sum is huge
What's 335V when you hit 350V it's "only" 15V so they don't feel that big of a difference
Can be more obedience with smaller increments rather than larger ones
Reasons with statistical support:
o Proximity to the victim
Easier to hurt someone who you don't have to touch and someone you can't see
o Proximity to the experimenter
Voice Cues (BaseLine)- (look at script Prod) 65% obedience
No voice cues- 70% obedience
Therefore voice cues did not matter
Physical difference: Same room- 40%
Touching distance (teacher had to press learner's hand onto electric shocker)- 20%
Physical proximity- depersonalization- when your in same room its hard to make
Proximity to the experimenter- Baseline: 65%
Over the phone: 15%