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social psych lec 8.docx

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McMaster University
Jennifer Ostovich

The great debate To what extent is aggression a rational response? The Frustration-Aggression hypothesis Miller and Dollard, Yale group Why does aggression happen? Starting point: strawman hypothesis--frustration aggression hypothesis Says three things 1. Frustration will always lead to aggression 2. If someone has aggressed it is because they have been frustrated  Aggression does not cause frustration*** 3. And there is nothing anyone can do about it it is a completely irrational response Evidence? Heat and aggression Research suggests that they have a very close relationship between frustration and aggression Research support  Lab experiments  People in hot rooms will be more aggressive than people in comfortable rooms  Heat and electiric shot punishments  More likely to electrically shock when in heat  Any animal who is hot temperature and put them into a cage with another animal they will be a lot more aggressive  Archival data  Riots  Happen mostly in the summer  More south in the states  The hotter it is the more likely the riot is lieky to happen and escalate  Above 90 degrees riots get incredibly violent than in the low 20degreess  Frustration of being hot  Baseball violance (refman et al. 1991)  He gathered data from games in 60s and 80s both data are same  In 80s -850games, how hot was it at the time of game, he looked up number of batters hit by pitchers and varied that with temperature  And he looked at other things just incase (was the pitcher just have a wild night? )  Number of home runs  How many people attended the game-arousal level goes up you get clumsy  He controleld for all these things  Then having controlled for these things they found, you likelyhood of being hit by a pitch goes up by 65%  Pitchers who were too hot, they were hitting batters more often than when the game was less hot  Significant results  Field experiments  When your driving and something irritating happens you get the urge to press the horn, that is aggression because you are doing it in negative intentions  Looked at horn honking and heat (kenrick and Mecharlene, 1986) No one can get around you, stall the car on purpose, green light comes on and you are not going to move for the whoel green light (12s) and see what the people behind you do  There attention was on the first person behind the car that stopped  How long it took to honk their horn  Duration of horn honking  Time spent honking the horn  They guessed approximate age, gender, how many people were behind them, **were there windows up or down**  Windows down means no a/c in car  Windows up means a/c on  Results  You find a correlation of .34 highly sig  When they had a/c (windows up) theyre was no correlation at all (0)  Windows down (.76 correlation) huge correlation these were the people who were engaging in the honking not the ones with a/c  Another inteeresting results if tempture was beyond 100, 34% of subjects who sued horns leaned on their horns for more than 6s of the 12s  If temp was below 90% 0% spent less than 6s leaning on their horns  It’s an aggressive act becaue you know honking your horn is not going to move a car so your intentionally agressively honking ur horn Evidence Pain and aggression Research support  Non-human animal literautre  Rats mice, electrify their cage floor and zap them after that they will tackle one another, you've caused them pain=frustration and taken it out on another creature  Human literature  Pain patients and anger  Chronic pain-- patients are more aggressive, than non chronic pain patients  Experimental findings  Berkowitz et a (1981)  Iv: pain  Used study where someone was going to come up with business solutions and someone was going to rate those solutions  They thought they were randomly assigned to those who gave solutions  Subjects seem to believe cover story  Manipulate pain-subjects told subjects to put their hand sin luke warm water  And some were told to put it in ice cold water (painful)  Pain is frustrating u would expect that people in icewater would be more aggressive  And that is what we find  DV: mean number of rewards/punishments given  Subjects can give reward or punishment (blast music)  Luke warm water: rewards were significantly given more than punishments  Ice water: still give out more rewards but significantly fewer rewards compared to luke warm and significantly higher punishments than those who put their hands in luke warm water  They were frustrated and so they had to aggression But… Effects of Rational Thought  Can we overcome this aggressive response?  Sure there may be a relationship between frustration and agression but can we control this?  Justification affects extent to which frustrating events produce anger  Pastore (1952)  If its justified we are less angered less frustrated than when it is unjustified  Ex. Going to a party: waiting for the bus, getting late and the bus wasn’t coming, in ghetto in street corner feeling unhappy  Weather was decent  Bus was coming along and girl was really happy, bus driving looked at girl and bus just drove by  Girl kicked something and very angered  But if her bus said "out of service" then the frustrating event is justified  You can accept it and your response isnt going to be as violent  We think this is the rational thought  We give justifications to ourselves to reduce the anger by thinking it through=rational thought Pastore did a scenario study IV: frustrating event is justified vs unjustified DV: how they reacted 1-5 Dv is anger not aggression  Justified vs.. Unjustified  Has subject read 16 senarios  And had them write how anger they would be if this happened to you  Rated 1-5 Side note:  Anger and aggression are different things**  Anger is not a perfect predictor of aggression**  Back to ex  They were just slightly on the angry point (3) when it was justified  When it wasn’t unjustified they were really angry (5) Interpretation - That piece of information to why it happened you can interupt and overriding the thought of anger with  Everyone is still angry but we can control the extend to the amount of anger we feel  Therefore Modify our behaviour response aggression  This work for both males and females Effects of rational thought 2  Intent affects response to frustrating events  If someone is intentional it angers us more than if it wasn’t  Oohbuchi and Kambara  Recruited subject to take part in learning shock paradigm  Subjects thought they were going to be teachers and learners and they think they are randomly assigned to be the learner first  As they are actually being hooked up to actual shock generator  They overhear teacher saying "im really going to blast this person with shocks"  Now the subjects knows the intentions  IVS  c's intent to harm S (intends harm vs no harm)  Actual harm done to S (shock weak vs. strong)  Shock level predicts how much harm was done  DV: retaliatory aggression (shock intensity When confed didn’t attend to harm them they more aggressive back but not significantly Harm given to subject they gave higher harm back but no significant difference It doesn’t matter how much pain they put you in, what matters of your understanding of why they hurt you if they intentionally hurt you or not When they knew you intentionally wanted to hurt you they wanted to hurt you back Due to rational thinking through the situation  When you know that the confed didn’t want to hurt you then you don’t hurt them as much back  But when you know they want to hurt you you give the same back  Its not about how much pain stimulation someone is getting its about with what intentions or in what situations are they giving me shocks Effects of Rational Thought 3 Justification & mitigation Mitigating info affects intensity of aggressive response Mitigating info- sometimes just an apology --that would suggest that your not as bad as person as you first seemed to be Justifications: I know what I did sucked but it was the right thing to do under that circumstances Ex. Its wrong to push but justifying
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