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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2C03
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich
Semester
Fall

Description
Theories of Prejudice Group- and individual-level Explanation Important prejudice concepts  Prejudice o Affective component  Emotional -affective--trio of factors that go together that create this comfort between groups --inter group conflict o A negative emotional reaction to a group and its members  Hate prejudice  Stereotypes o Cognitive component  Intergroup discomfort o Beliefs about members the characteristics of a group and its members-> unfair generalizations  May belong to one member of the group but we describe it to all members of the group  Professors are absent minded, that’s a stereotype--not every professor are absent minded  Just a belief in its whole group and its members  Discrimination o Behavioral component o Negative behaviour towards someone based on their membership in a group Affective Behaviour Cognitive A b and c of inter group relations Overview  Prejudice o Group processes Prejudice arises from competition (real or imagined) between groups Competition based on material goods  Realistic group conflict theory (Sherif)  Ex. Fish, water in the dessert Competition based on non-material "goods"  Social identity theory (Tajfel)  Ex. Self-esteem o Cognitive processes  Social cognition perspective--lead them to foster unpleasantness between groups  Prejudice arises as a result of cognitive processes that lead us to stereotype outgroups  Development of stereotypes  Illusory correlations  Outgroup homogenelty  Maintenance of stereotypes  Outgroup homogenelty  Information processing biases Outgroup- a group you don't belong to Ingroup- shares something with you Group-based theories of prejudice Realistic group conflict theory; social identity theory Realistic group conflict theory  50s 60s  Lord of the Flies o Divide into 2 groups fighting over power  Power is a very real material thing  Good example of realistic group conflict theory  Something that is going to help you survive--power, money  Competition over material goods leads to o Stereotyping o Hostility towards the outgroup o Harassment of the outgroup  This can be reversed by making the group members work together o Superordinate goals  If your in competition over material goods--hatred will occur  Theory says we can reverse intergroup, give groups who are fighting over something a super ordinate goal--something they can only achieve together Robber's Cave Field Experiment (sherif etal 1961) Stage 1: no contact Recruited 20 boys to take part in 3 week over night summer camp   Free camp for parents in exchange for sending kids to camp  Psychological testing done on kids--to make sure that they were normal happy kids  Boys get sent to summer camps in 2 groups of 10  First week: they live in different cabins on different sides of park  They have no idea of existance of the other group  They develop their own hierarchy etc  They even were asked to give themselves a name o Group called themselves the Eagles (good guys, didn’t swear, polite) o Other group Ratlers (cussed)  Boys in each group got to get to know one another and form an identity Stage 2: Discovery  Then they discover there are other boys at the camp  Discover each other at baseball diamond  "those guys are on our baseball diamond"  Camp counselor says we might as well spend time all together Stage 3: Competition  Prize for winner (money)  Negative interdependence  They are in a situation n which they both want one thing they cant share  One winner and one loser  This is supposed to make you hate the other group  They are trying to take something away from you that you want  they didn’t like each other from the start but as soon as the competition started, things got nasty, lots of hostility and name calling, leadership hierarchy (militaristic)  Camp counselors met with kids  Had boys rate their own group and outgroup on several terms  Brave  Tough  Friendly  Sneaky  Smartalic  Stinker  Each group believed their own group were the good things  But outgroup was viewed as sneakers, stinker (30s)  Stereo typing ingroup favoritism, outgroup derogation Stage 4: Reducing the hostility  Americans were interested in how to reduce hostility in groups  Government came up with mere contact  Put same races in same room --blacks and whites in same school  How did they test this?  The boys would do activities together and then later spend nights alone  Now they had to spend time eating together and this lead to many food fights --it didn’t work (they tried this 7 times) they thought this mere contact would work  Mere contact DOES NOT WORK  Superordinate goals-->positive interdependence  Two groups who have to depend on each other to get to end goal (what they want)  Researchers set up situation where truck breaks and cooking supplies are on the truck  The only way for the truck going again is if eagles and ret work together and push the truck  Tried it by themselves team by team and then decide to do it together and the truck starts  Solution only occurred when both groups work together  After a few of these situations to achieve super-ordinate goals  Name calling significantly reduced, rating of the words (brave, tough) now actually less likely to say outgroups were all just negative --they were a lot of favour  Still had biased of ingroup but hatred seemed to go away with outgroup  Started to become friends with outgroup members  Stage 3: 95% of campers friend was in his own group  Stage 4: 70% of campers friend was in his own group  Rattlers won contest, eagles had arrived in separate buses and got to vote if they wanted to share buses or not
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