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social psych lec 12.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

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Theories Based on Cognitive Processes How automatic cognitive processes lead us to stereotype our outgroups What are people themselves doing that seems to lead us to feel discomfort Is it all just based on these larger group processes? Cognitive theories of Prejudice 1. Development of stereotypes  We use cog short cuts that we don’t examine much, and don’t know we are using them  We use cognitive energy saving practices, that will have an maintain stereotypes  Using short cuts not deep thinking  Illusory correlation  Outgroup homogenelty 2. Maintenance of sterotypes  Outgroup homogenetly  Information processing bias Development of stereotypes: illusory correlation  Known as shared distinctiveness  Correlation between 2 unrelated things because we see them happen at the same time  When 2 distinct events co-occur we mistakenly assume that they will always co occur  Eg gen tojo  Jap general  First japanese that most americans have ever seen, he was distinct to them  His glasses were weird and strange, distinct person (asian) wearing a distinct thing on his face (glasses)  African-american stereotyped stupid because they weren't allowed to read or write  Marshans  See marshan and pees into potted plant and think all marshans are disgusting  Distinct Marshan and distinct behaviour and now you believe that marshans are disgusting  You created an illusory correlation  Cog shortcut and you think from now on you avoid all marshans Mock illusory correlation data See someone in distinct vs non-distinct whos doing something either distinct vs non distinct Disinct person and distinct behaviour Distinct behaviour by non distinct person recalled significantly less than above Non distinct behaviour with distinct person Nondistinct behaviour with non-distinct person They are both recalled equally  You need both things to be distinct at once * for it to be recalled significantly and viewed as distinct  Illusory--illusion that these two things will go together Development and maintenance of stereotypes: outgroup homogeneity  What is outgroup homogeneity  Outgroups are made up of people who are all the same  Ex. If one asian is good at math they are all good at math  Contrast with ingroup heterogeneity  We are all very different from one another in your own group  What is its role in stereotype dev?  It allows you to apply some sort of illusory to one group  They are all like that so im going to avoid them  What is its role in stereotype maintenance?  Once you expect to see a certain type of behaviour that’s all that your going to notice Once we have an idea about anything we seek to confirm it, even if we are not consciously thinking, we are going to notice the instances where the outgroup homogeneity  Groups disliking one another on some heuristic  Quattrone and Jones (1980)  Ss are students at rutgers  Watched video tape of someone making a decision of where they are going to sit, subject is either an ingroup or outgroup (IV)  See confederate in tape arrive to take part in the expt and equipment break, in the meantime there are waiting rooms one is empty and one is not  Then they are asked where would other rutgers students choose to sit or where would other princeton students choose to sit?  DV: outgroup homogeneity  Results  Rutgers (ingroup) and % who make same choice 50%  Rutgers student and guy on tape went to princeton, princeton guy chooses to sit alone in tape then rutgers 70% of them they choose to sit alone  Record 3 19s  Saves cognitive energy Student questions: Illusory correlation-helps us create a brand new stereotype, we think enough people made illusory correlations and just applied it to everyone that’s where new stereotypes come from  Develops stereotype because it works  It affects us of confirmation bias effects the way we process information of our outgroups, a preference for encoding remember informaton that supports the stereotype rather than information that doesn’t  We are so sure that we don’t encode anythignt hat doesn’t support the idea that they are all alike Maintenance of stereotypes: info process biases  We don’t notice asians who don’t wear glasses
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