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Introduction to sensory mechanisms (4).docx

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McMaster University
Gautam Ullal

September 17 , 2012 Psych 2E03: Sensory Processes Introduction to Sensory Mechanisms (4) Binding Failure - when the binding between various aspects of sensory stimuli fail - binding failure may be induced in a normal individual by stabilizing the image on the retina, ex.: contact lenses - what is the mechanism of binding failure Visual Binding - what do catastrophic visual binding failures look like - catastrophic binding failure is just an expression used by the authors to describe the binding failure they saw in their subjects. It does not refer to any catastrophe or disorder Visual binding failure - a and b images is stabilized on the retina with an eye-tracking device. Fading/melting, fragmentation, breakdown and blackouts occur: brain is getting fatigued, receptors are adapting, breaking along the line not outside indicating a pattern - depending on how complex a stimulus we get more information - c. breakdown may follow a mosaic-pattern: still looks like a face, because the brain has a concept of what a face looks like when it breaks down it still looks like a face Complex image fragmentation follows Gestalt-like pattern - a-d. meaningful gestalt fragments are preserved during the image breakdown - e. stabilized images of binocularly fused images of left and right eye show breakdown of the fused image and not the monocular form ruling out a peripheral process: will not see only left-eye image or right-eye image breakdown but rather fused image breakdown Mechanisms of binding failure - binding failure due to prolongued sensory stimulation with eyes fixated on a picture may have senveral probable mechanisms: 1. peripheral process involving fatigue in the sensory-receptor/nerve pathway 2. peripheral process of sensory receptor-adaptation 3. central process involving the cerebral cortex and inter-cortical connections where the binding may eventually occur Epistemology - epistemology deals with the process of bringing the outside world to the inside mind - how do we perceive accurately? Is prior experience impotant? - E.g. does a 2-month –old infant have an accurate knowledge of where the edge of the crib is from his nose, or must he learn by bumping into it or grasping and reaching - The empiricist emphasize that prior knowledge gathered through sensory experience is vital; for perception  An infant’s world: blooming, buzzing confusion through sensory experience it becomes baby's world: more structure with further experience we have an adult world: more orderly - Gestalt psychologist agree with empiricists that prior knowledge is important perception however innate abilities rather than learning is important nature vs nurture. In gestalt, whole is different from sum of individual elements  Pragnanz  Similarity  Good continuation  Proximity  Common fate  Meaningfulness or familiarity Unimodal and multimodal binding - unimodal binding: binding within a particular sensory modality  e
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