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localization of sounds (1).docx

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Gautam Ullal

November 28 , 2012 Psych 2E03: Sensory Processes Localization of Sounds (1) Auditory localization - on average, people can localize sounds  directly in front of them most accurately  to the sides and behind their heads least accurately - location cues are not contained in the receptor cells like on the retina in vision; thus, location for sounds must be calculated - auditory space – surrounds an observer and exists where there is sound - coordinates:  azimuth coordinates – position left to right  elevation coordinates – position up and down  distance coordinates – position from observer Cues for localization of sounds (binaural cues) - interaural time difference (ITD): especially useful for sounds arising from the horizontal plane - interaural intensity or level difference (ILD): particularly helpful for high frequency sounds because they produce acoustic shadows Cues for sound location - binaraul cues – location cues based on the comparison of the signals received by the left and right ears  interaural time difference (ITD) – difference between the times sounds reach the two ears  when distance to each ear is the same, there are no differences in time  when the source is to the side of the observer, the times will differ Binaural cues and the acoustic shadows - interarual level difference (ILD) – difference in sound pressure level reaching the two ears  reduction in intensity occurs for high frequency sounds for the far ear  the head cast
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