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McMaster University
Judith Shedden

February 13 , 2013 Psych 2H03: Human Cognition and Learning Memory Memory - acquisition, storage, retrieval  we must have a way to add new information  the vast amounts of information that we acquire over our lifetimes must be stored  information is not much good to you unless you can retrieve it - we will start by looking at memory acquisition  note that ultimately, the three are completely interdependent and interactive The Route into Memory - what we learn depends on what we already know - what we know depends on what we have attended to in the past - what we attend to is guided by what we expect - what we expect depends on what we have already learned - how do we acquire new information? By what methods do we study this issue? - Hard to store in memory when there are very few links An Information-Processing View of Memory - the modal model of information acquisition: a series of stages through which information is detected, recognized, stored, and retrieved - information maintained in working memory by some active process of rehearsal which maintains this information can be interrupted - retrieval of information from long term memory returns to working memory - long term memory and working memory are physically separate entities and is physically transferred from one to another - doesn’t mean that there is a physical area of the brain for these processes only different functions Are there Two Types of Memory? - working memory  small, at hand, in use, active, current, fast  relatively small in capacity  information it holds is active and at hand - long-term memory  vast, reference library, files, dormant, slow  given the right cue this information can be retrieved  vast and static  active retrieval is a slow process and requires a lot of effort - what is the evidence for the distinction and is it persuasive?  Does it imply two systems that are distinct physically?  There is a functional distinction - short-term memory and working memory are the same thing, there’s no dedicated short term memory storage, working memory is a functional mechanism that keeps certain things active while you are working on them, is distributed across the brain and across the neural networks of the brain Learning Lists of Words - list learning task - list of 30 words, one per second, followed by free recall of as many words as can be remembered  which words to participants remember?  Free recall as we don’t put any restriction on what order they must be remembered - recall the words in any order: consistent and robust pattern on how people remember these words  serial position curve:  primacy effect (first words) o memory rehearsal, more attention  recency effect (recent, last words from the end of the list) o still in working memory so easily accessible  U-shaped  Evidence of the two kinds of memory: o Working memory is limited in size: 6-7 words. As subjects listen to more words, previous words get bumped out. Therefore the latter words are better recalled o Primary effect is due to long-term, you can devote all your attention to the first words as you are actively rehearsing them. Reach a maximum then they start dropping off. o Working memory is filled to maximum as you attempt to rehearse the beginning words o Words at the beginning have a greater advantage of getting stored in long-term memory as they are being rehearsed. Predictions - manipulate working memory:  it has a limited size, therefore if they are given another task it is easier to bump out the information and the recency effect should dissapear  replace items in working memory with intervening backward- counting task between learning and recall  should affect recency but not primacy  this manipulation should not affect long-term memory - manipulate long-term memory:  slow rate of presentation of words  longer time to rehearse  should improve long-term memory but not working memory - interpolated activity has an impact on the recency effect, but does not change the rest of the curve  immediate: same effect  group of subjects performs a task for thirty seconds at the end of the experiment:  task requires a lot of your working memory to do this  we no longer have the recency effect  you have also given a thirty second delay – control condition, give participant thirty second delay without the task and maintained the recency effect - slowing the rate of presentation does not effect recency but does have an impact on the rest of the curve:  improvement in the primacy effect and all the way along  longer rehearsal time does not make a difference for the recency effect - evidence for the two mechanisms of memory The Nature of Working Memory - function: what does working memory do for us? - Capacity: what is the capacity and can we increase it? - Nature: what exactly is it? is it physically different from long-term memory? Can we point to it? - diversity of content: what have we got in there and how do we deal with the diversity? The Function of Working Memory - the total amount of knowledge we posses is vast - speed and accuracy of access to information is critical - working memory is the desktop of the mind, keeping currently needed information active and accessible What is the Capacity of Working Memory? - trade-off between accessibility and size - access vs. quantity - you keep the information you need right now but if you start pilling too much you may find that accessibility begins to suffer the very thing you wanted working memory for - the magic 7 plus or minus two (George Miller) - increasing the capacity by chunking  example: Bower & Springston, 1970  trade-off: the number of chunks may be reduced as the size of chunks become larger  for example, you may be able to maintain 7 words but only 3 or 4 full sentences  attention and interaction with long-term memory required, as well as greater effort to maintain the chunks Can we increase the Capacity of WM? - we can learn better chunking strategies - chunking requires attention  needs practice. Uses up WM capacity - often they are specific to the material and do not transfer  e.g. Chase & Ericsson (1978, 1982)  subject ‘S’ developed a 79 digit span based on chunking digits into finishing times for races  however, this astonishing memory span did not transfer to other materials (e.g., letters) – specific to the meaning of the items remembered - use it or loseit: the fact that you are trying to learn anything will help - often what we learn is specific to the domain and will transfer to other tasks if they are using the same processes (transfer appropriate processes) February 15 , 2013 Can we Physically Define WM? - is it a box (as implied by box and arrow models) or a separate area in the brain, into and out of which long-term memories must be transferred? - Working memory as an active store  We can not necessarily point to the location of working memory in the brain  It may consist of a few long-term memories that are currently active  The important distinction would then be ‘state’ rather than ‘place’ Working Memory as a State rather than a Place - this distinction still fits with the data that show qualitative differences between working memory and long-term memory - fits with the observation the maintaining information in working memory is not passive (as in storing in a box) but active and demanding  the more demanding, the fewer items that can be maintained A Better Measure of Capacity - if it is true that memory is a state rather than a place, is the span test (simply the number of items it can hold) a good measure of capacity? - We need a measure of capacity that considers efficiency Test Capacity as well as Efficiency - equation true or false followed by memory of a word - how good is your memory at performing a task and memorizing a word What Information does Working Memory Hold? - the things we are currently thinking about  abstract, concrete, images, smells, words, sounds – alone or in combination - coordinated by the central executive: manages what is on the desktop  multi-purpose processor capable of running many different operations on many different types of material  response selection, goal setting, planning  closely tied to attention – focusing attention  Baddeley & Hitch model of the working memory system The Working Memory System - articulatory rehearsal loop: verbal repetition in your mind, sub-vocalization - used observations of human behaviour to come up with something that might be going on: people seem to use verbal codes for things - we people tend to make errors, they then to be specific kinds of errors - in the word task, common errors are lending support that they are using the verbal code (sounds alike) instead of visual code - phonological buffer: holds phonological and auditory information very briefly - continuous reading in, comes back and is read out so that we do not loose this information(loop) - energy demanding - while information is in the buffer, the central executive can work on other processes Articulatory Rehearsal Loop - information cycles around the loop  the inner voice: produces trace of pronunciation, auditory image created  the inner ear: auditory images fade away so cycle must be repeated, requiring periodic input from the central executive - may account for the use of speech-like code May Account for the use of Speech-Like Code - specialized for dealing with verbal material: draws on the same mechanisms that are used for speech - errors will be phonological (sound-alike_ confusions: F is not confused with E, but it is more likely to be confused with S - accounts for a word-length effect in working memory: ease of pronunciation matters The Effects of Concurrent Articulation - task that interferes with the inner voice - task: say something aloud while doing the task, engaging the speech system - performance is disrupted - you can still remember stuff but you have taken away one of it’s sub processes (the phonological buffer) - sound alike errors will be reduced The Effects of Task-Irrelevant Noise - prevent or make reading out very difficult - auditory noise that makes it difficult to read that information out will disrupt performance - the more similar the sound is to something you are trying to remember the harder it is to remember - interferes with the inner ear - if a task does not use the articulatory loop, it will not interfere Block use of Rehearsal Loop - via extraneous auditory noise or concurrent articulation: difficult to speak alound and use the inner voice - word-length effect and sound-alike errors are reduced - working memory capacity reduced: capacity measured is the capacity of the system minus the capacity of the rehearsal loop Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test - visual spatial knowledge - requires the central executive - using another kind of buffer - give it to people and you let the copy it, take it away and reproduce from memory The Working Memory System Central Executive Controls Specialized Subsystems are Like Scratch Pads - the phonological articulatory rehearsal loop: working memory seems to rely on a speech-like code - visuospatial buffer or sketchpad: because we can remember non-verbal stuff too - manual rehearsal loop for sign language - other modalities Summary - working memory is not a box or storage container - working memory may not be physical different from long-term memory:  it is a useful description of a set of activities that are currently active – those that are being worked on by the central executive  linking ideas, drawing inferences, retrieving information from LTM - but working memory is still distinct  active  able to maintain of small amount of easily accessible information  fragile, in the sense that work is required to maintain the contents and the contents are easily displaced  diverse in the range of its contents (similar to long-term memory)  diverse in the sources of its contents (similar to long-term memory)  takes energy to maintain Acquisition of Long-Term Memories - vast in size - often difficult to enter information - often difficult to retrieve information - consider two types of rehearsal:  maintenance rehearsal:  requires little effort, rote, mechanical  short-term; does not lead to effective retrieval later on  elaborative rehearsal  difficult, requires effort  leads to more effective retrieval later on Craik & Warkins - a list of words is presented - the task is to report the last word you hear that starts with the letter D - surprise: what were all the D words - what were you doing with the words: probably maintenance only – you don’t need to engage a more strenuous strategy when you only need the last one - does it matter how many times the item is rehearsed?  No  Simple maintenance rehearsal did not lead to better recall, regardless of the number of times the item was rehearsed  Number of words presented between ‘D’ words (the greater the number, the longer the time to rehearse the most recent D word)  The graph is flat - repeated exposure does not lead to robust memories  how many times have you looked at the currency in your pockets? - elaborative rehearsal is more effective: back story that leads to recall February 26 , 2013 A Better Memory - is it your intention to learn, or is it a function of the procedure you use?  For example, when studying for an exam, is it going to help you to simply read over the assigned chapters and lecture notes a few times  Or does it matter what you do with the material while you are reading - the type of processing is critical - maintenance rehearsal: is shallow, but could work if your intention is really high Experiment - does your intention have a direct effect n your success - vary the level of processing and at the same time, wary the intention of the subject to remember the material  subjects intend or do not intend to learn the word by being told that they need to remember the stimuli at the end of presentation  incidental learning: not told to remember anything, what they remember is incidental  type of processing is shallow, medium or deep  deep: you need to remember the meaning of the word - results were the same between the incidental and the intentional learning - did not matter whether or not you known that you had to remember later on Interaction - another group not told which type of processing - intention to learn ahs an indirect effect if the subject applies the right learning stratefu  if no processing instructions are given, and participants are told to just memorize these words  people spontaneously choose their own strategies  some people choose to do deep processing, some choose to just do maintenance rehearsal  if you choose deep processing for yourself, results look the same as for the deep processing condition Attention to Meaning - how does deep processing help learning?  Memory acquisition is not independent of memory retrieval  Facilitation of retrieval: ability to fin the information later on  Memories are connected, one to another, access of one memory can trigger another  Understanding the meaning helps to establish the memory connections  The richer the network of connections, the better the retrieval Principles of organization - mnemonic strategies  discover organization within the material  objects/ideas may fall into categories  similarities between objects/ideas  differences between objects/ideas  temporal relation  or, apply your own external organization  peg-word system  method of loci Peg Word System - imposing organization in order to remember by linking them to another well learned structure that you already have - learn a list of words that act as pegs to hang other words on - once you have these pegs in your memory you can use them over again - choose words that rhyme - create an image of the peg word interaction with the to-be-remembered (TBR) word - better for the two objects to be remembered are interacting - hard at first but you eventually become faster and faster Method of Loci - developed by early Greek and Roman orators as technique for delivering long speeches - storage of to-be-remembered (TBR) information that must be recalled in a specific order  step one: commit to memory a series of loci, or places (usually parts of a building)  step two: convert TBR information into images and place those images at the loci in the order in which you would encounter them walking through the building  step three: retrieval, in order, occurs as you imagine walking through the building - Ad Herenmium (86-82 B.C.): described the method with rules for how the method should be used  Images should be precise and dynamic  Locations should be intermediate size  Locations should be distinctive  Different from one another so they won’t be confused - Crovitz, 1971  Tested the implication that storing more than one images at the same location would interfere with retrieval Crovitz, 1971 - 32 items representing locations, e.g. pet stores, zoo, fire station, hospital - 32 words TBR - 7 groups of subjects  1 control group who received no locations: harder to remember  6 groups who received  1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 locations, along with instructions to picture each word vividly at the successive locations  if there were fewer than 32 locations then would have to store more that one word at each location - had to recall the words in the correct order as a function of the cues February 27 , 2013 Other Organizing Schemes - list learning: clustering in free recall studies  easier to remember words that fall into categories  carrot, beet, potato, corn  tree, flower, bush, branch  even if presented in random order, subjects will often sort them at recall  input: branch, beet, tree, carrot, potato, bush, corn, flower  output: flower, bush, branch, tree, potato, beet, corn, carrot Tulving Study - even if words do not fall into categories, finding a subjective organization will aid recall  present list of words (no obvious categories)  three recall tests: at time 1, time 2, time 3  hypothesis:  tight organization will result in similar recall order for recall tests at time 1 and time 2: if there’s an ordering pattern that they have imposed, then they should be the same on recall one and recall two o sorted into groups which could or could not do subjective organization  similar recall order (and thus, tight organization) will predict superior recall at test at time 3  results:  some subjects applied a tight organization of the material, revealed by recalling the words in the same order on two different recall tests  the more alike the word order was for recall tests 1 and 2, the better the recall performance at test 3 Interference can make Learning Hard - interference:  proactive interference: previous learning hurts new learning  retroactive interference: new learning interferes with previously learned stuff Proactive Interference - tulip, orchid, daffodil (good) - rose, pansy, carnation (worse – you have interference as they are from the same categories) - petunia, zinnia, lily (even worse) - crocus, geranium, daisy (still worse) - giraffe, kangaroo, squirrel (back to good – new categories) - interference in similar networks Retroactive Interference - group 1 (experimental): list A, List B, test list A = poorer performance - group 2 (control): list A, rest, test list A = better performance - performance is poorer in experimental condition due to retroactive interference that you get in learning list B - review immediately after (leap frog with the information) so that you avoid retroactive interference How can you Apply Memory Strategies? - mnemonics are great for remembering lists and names (once you have practiced the technique), but not so great for understanding - to remember names:  pay attention  use the name “well, Steven, it’s good to meet you. Your last name, Harper, is very unusual”  space your practice (say the name again a minute later, again, 5 minutes alter, again 20 minutes later)  why does spacing your practice help  creating different links - to understand: build a network, make connections with other material  when you study for exams:  encode the meaning of the material, organize it, elaborate it  be an active processor  space your practice  sleep on what you have learned  fluency of processing as the information goes in is often an illusion Understanding Leads to Better Memory - understanding leads to a richer net of connections at the encoding stage - Bransford & Johnson (1973)  Listen to a paragraph  Try to comprehend and remember it  Rate how easy it was to comprehend  Recall as many ideas as possible  Manipulated it by giving participants prior knowledge before the paragraph, or no prior knowledge Appropriate context - the balloon paragraph consisted of 14 ideas  there were three context conditions  no context condition: subjects never received the contest  context-after condition: subjects received the context after hearing the story  context-before condition: subjects received the context before hearing the story The Context - results: of the 14 ideas presented in the Balloon passage:  no context condition: 3.6 ideas recalled  context-after: 3.6 ideas recalled – no better at remembering the ideas  context-before: 8.0 ideas recalled  what helps your memory is having a base of network structures to put those ideas in Effect of Prior Knowledge on Comprehension and Recall - context does more than provide hints about ideas in the passage  if the picture provided effective retrieval cues, it would have benefited the context-after group, but it did not - context provides a structure for the ideas at encoding time:  when abstract ideas are difficult to comprehend, they are quickly forgotten  when there is a base of knowledge, connections between ideas become apparent Summary of Memory Acquisition - indirect effect of intention to learn  because people apply strategies; but the strategies may or may not be effective - direct level of processing:  shallow processing and maintenance rehearsal do not lead to effective memories  deep processing and elaborative rehearsal create, identify, and organize connections - the richer the network of connections, the better the retrieval of the information later on  what determines the connections - building a rich network of connections:  prior knowledge provides the framework  the ability to organize information into chunks depends on existing knowledge  understanding, interpretation, and inference depends on existing knowledge  organization of the material and forging links between ideas requires attention  these links provide retrieval pathways later on  if you do not provide the links, retrieval will be difficult Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval are Interdependent Memory: Acquisition and Retrieval - there are variations in the way memories are acquired as well as variations in the way memories are retrieved  these processes are interdependent and interactive  how do they relate and what are the interactions - shallow processing may be better in some context - there’s a specificity of neural processing that makes some kinds of learning that you thought were shallow produce better memory - cues are critical What is an Effective Cue? - three principles of mnemonics  provide a structure  create a durable record (e.g. visual images)  guide retrieval by providing effective cues - what makes a cue effective?  Associative strength  State-dependent learning  Encoding specificity Retrieval: Recall vs Recognition - recall  who was the prime minister in 1969?  Requires that you generate the answer  Followed by a decision – is the answer correct - recognition  was Pierre Elliot Trudeau the prime minister in 1969  does not require generation  does require a decision – is the answer correct? - ex.: multiple choice exams give misleading cues as oppose to essay exams Associative Strength - build up associative strength by frequency of occurrence, or distinctiveness of the relation  cat is strongly associated with meow  cat is more weakly associated with milk  related to high frequency and uniqueness - subjects are given word pairs to study  then one member of the pair is presented as the cue to help recall the other member of the pair  strongly associated cues are more effective than the weak associated cues  meow is better than milk as a cue for cat - spreading activation: working with networks in our brain, activity from one item spreads to other information, as that information because more and more active March 1 , 2013 State-Dependent Learning - relates to context that you’re in and the context become the retrieval cue - the importance of the perspective at time of encoding and at time of retrieval  location (e.g. under water vs. on land)  physiology (e.g. intoxicated vs. sober)  mood (e.g. happy vs. sad)  environment (visual, auditory, olfactory) - the context becomes incorporated with the associations and thus the path of the retrieval pathway - researchers Godden & Baddeley, 1975: interested in gathering evidence on context and learning  deep-sea divers learned material sitting by the edge of the water or 20 feet under the water – two very different environments  they were then tested by the edge of the water of 20 feet under the water  if they learned on land, retrieval was better on land than underwater  if they learned underwater, retrieval was better underwater than on land  perspective at the time that you learn has an effect on your ability to retrieve because the cues for retrieval are wrapped up in the environment you use when learning  example of physiological state-dependent learning: studying under the influence of nicotine or marijuana  if they were in the same state in both cases, they did much better  if they learned the material in a normal state the physiological change is really strong  state dependent learning in relation to mood can effect what you are learning  memories related to song are much more complex when we retrieve them later on as they are being learned in your neural pathways  retrieving one retrieves the rest - interaction between all these components is very strong - context is incorporated into memory - can lead to shallow processing - shallow processing: what are the implications, how specific are those sets of pathways that were setting up? - For example: depth of perception experiment (semantics, rhymes, syntax) - Deeper processing increases the strength of association and increases the number of retrieval paths Encoding Specificity: Interactions between Encoding and Retrieval Operations - specificity of context can be strong enough to overcome depth of processing - comparing semantic and phonemic cues (Fischer & Craik, 1977) - first part of experiment  make many judgments about phrases and words  semantic associations at learning o phrase: associated with sleet o word: hail (correct answer is yes) o conceptual type of processing, deeper processing  phonemic association at learning o phrase: rhymes with pail o word: hair (correct answer is yes) o still the same kind of comparison but it is a shallower level of processing - second part of experiment  task: recall words based on retrieval cues  possible cues for hail (in the semantic condition)  associated with sleet (identical to study context)  associated with snow (similar to study context)  rhymes with bail (different from study context)  possible cues for hail (in phonemic condition)  rhymes with pail (identical to study context)  rhymes with bail (similar to study context)  associated with sleet (different from study context) - semantic learning should be greater than phonemic condition - but if the type of processing and the match between the processing encoding and the processing at retrieval then maybe we will see some interactions - there is a depth of processing effect  semantic condition: better overall than in the phonemic condition we still have a depth of processing  when you get the identical cue you are much better then you are when you get a similar or a different cue  interaction reveals that the match between study and retrieval is important  retrieval cue is very important! Encoding Specificity: Learning Includes the Items and Context - there is a specificity at the encoding stage: a change in context affects the ability to recall - retrieve information by thinking about the item and the context:  e.g. Smith, 1979  learning and testing in different rooms;  subjects who were tested in a different room but urged to think about the learning room did just as well as those who were testing in the learning room Specificity of Preocessing: What is Crucial for the Task? - perceptual fluency:  if you have perceived the stimulus, fluency develops for perceiving the stimulus  does not lead to conceptual fluency  specific to stimulus details - conceptual fluency  if you have though about the meaning, fluency develops for thinking about the meaning  does not lead to perceptual fluency  specific to perspective taken Perceptual Specificity - perceptual memories are stimulus-specific  practice with auditory does not prime visual  practice with a subset of letters of a word does not prime recognition given the letters that were not seen as a cue  word fragment completion  having completed the fragment: presented with certain letters helps to complete: if you give same set of letters they are better at producing the word but not complete: if you give them the other set that were not presented before they do not have the same priming effect  in some cases, even differences in type case can be crucial - therefore, the fluency is very specific to the physical details of the stimulus - priming from complementary pictures: a. priming occurs for successive pictures that contain the same geons b. priming does not occur for successive pictures that do not contain the same geons Conceptual Specificity - specific to the type of thinking you are doing - lexical-decision task:  is this letter string an English word?  Letter string shown in context: the boy took the money he earned from the paper route to the bank - repeat letter string; same context: strong repetition priming occurs, good transfer and lots of fluency as you are repeating the context - repeat letter string; different context but same meaning: repetition priming was not as strong  she realized she needed cash and she headed for the bank  pay a cost for a slightly different perspective - repeat letter string; different context and different meaning; repetition priming much reduced  she jumped into the river and she swam to the opposite bank  don’t have any of the priming you had in the other conditions  conceptual perspective is critical to processing fluency Transfer-Appropriate processing - in the terms we have been talking about  perceptual skill: relevant to perceptual tasks  conceptual skill relevant to conceptual tasks - how specific is practice within those skill categories? Transfer-appropriate processing refers to a finer grain specificity  a particular perceptual skill: relevant to that particular perceptual skill  a particular conceptual skill: relevant to that particular conceptual skill - factual recall versus problem solving perspective  I can tell you the score of any baseball game before the game starts. What is my secret?  A man living in a small town in the US married 20 different women in the same town, all are still living, and had never divorced one of them. Yet he has broken no law. Can you explain?  Subjects saw statements before hand at had to rate for their truthfulness - fact based perspective  36% correct at solving problem if you had previously rated the following:  before it starts, the score of any baseball game is 0 to 0  a minister marries several people each week  56% correct at solving the problem if you had rated the following  it is possible to marry several people each week (pause) if one is a minister  problem solving perspective gave them information in a different way  pause allows for perspective to be set up in terms of problem solving - transfer-appropriate processing predicts that if the perspective is problem solving based then problem solving acquisition is gained Pause - we’ve been talking about processing specificity - different kinds of memory th March 5 , 2013 Memory Dichotomies - working/long-term - recognition/recall: tapping into different kinds of memory - perceptual/conceptual: specificity of processing and cues; perceptual is more unaware while conceptual is more aligned with conscious - automatic/controlled - implicit/explicit: implicit is aligned with automatic whereas explicit is more aligned with controlled processing - unconscious/conscious: experience of consciousness; implicit-unconscious, explicit-conscious - procedural/declarative: declarative are facts about things whereas procedural memories are more about the things you are doing (skills) - it facilitates experiments when you have dichotomies - evidence for two distinguishable systems where one manipulation might affect one component while a manipulation to another will effect the other component giving us a double dissociation Retrograde Amnesia - a lot of the dichotomies are supported by brain imaging data and injury - can’t remember what happened just before the accident - loss of memory for events prior to injury  neurological exam on football players after injury:  30 seconds after; 3 minutes after; 5 after; and so on…  the players could remember exactly what happened immediately after, but 5 minutes later they could no longer remember  suggest that consolidation of memory into long-term has been disrupted by the injury  beginning interview they are working with working memory  the information does not make it into long-term memory as they were interrupted before they could be permanently stored  likely involving the hippocampus  supports distinction between working memory Anterograde Amnesia - inability to form memories of events subsequent to injury - also involves the hippocampus  patient H.M.  large portion of the brain was removed: bilateral removal of temporal lobes including hippocampus  intact working memory; intact LTM for events already stored  inability to store new information  intact ability to learn procedural information  working memory is intact  long-term memory is absent  Korsakoff’s syndrome (similar to H.M.)  Thiamine deficiency brought on by alcoholism  Same effect on the hippocampus  Support the idea that the hippocampus is part of what lays down long-term memory - supports distinction between working memory and long-term memory, and implicit/explicit and procedural/declarative - also support that hippocampus is not important in laying down all kinds of long-term memory; there may be other pathways - for example, with practice H.M. improved at the procedural task (mirror writing task; you can become better at this with practice) but did not remember performing the task - graph shows attempts per day and the number of days - 1 day, first attempt contains many errors, gradually decrease - 2 day, a bit of error in the first attempt, gradually decrease - the next day there are very few errors - implicit learning can occur even though they don’t have conscious awareness of learning - perceptual/procedural learning - shows that we have implicit and explicit pathways Remembering the Source versus Experiencing Familiarity - remembering the source of the knowledge  the particular episode in which the learning occurred  the place, the time, the people, the details - feeling familiar  no association with a particular episode  no association with where, when, or who - being able to correctly recall words means being able to recall them correctly and differentiate them from words you’ve seen in other places = remembering the source of the memory (episodic) - source memory and familiarity come from two independent processing What are the Influences - performance on a recall test  must identify the item as part of a particular episode  requires source of the memory  you have to access those words on your own  familiarity alone won’t work here - performance on a recognition test  can use source memory – you explicitly remember seeing a word  can use familiarity plus inference – fluency of processing and an inference about the source of the familiarity (attribution to the familiarity)  correctly or incorrectly infer the item was from a particular episode  correctly or incorrectly infer the item was NOT from a particular episode The Complexity of Memory Retrieval - attribution of the source of knowledge - attributions are made for both recognition and recall  recognition: need to decide why a particular item seems familiar  recall: need to decide whether a particular memory was correctly retrieved Memory with and without Awareness - what is this feeling of familiarity?  Memory that greatly affects our behaviour  Yet, it seems to be memory without awareness - how to test memory without awareness  direct tests of memory: conceptual, asking a direct question  indirect test of memory: perceptual – priming is implicit  see two items  task is to read the second one and remember it for later  three different learning conditions  not context: XXXX/DARK – involves perception, does not require thinking about the meaning  context: HOT/COLD – antonyms – in between perceptual and conceptual information  generate: LOW – the second you must generate yourself (HIGH); highly conceptual, thinking about the meaning of the first word and the meaning of the second word in order to generate it, involves the least perceptual (no perceptual at all as the second word is not seen)  results: o if we give direct and indirect memory tasks we should get an interaction where the indirect test shows better performance when you do implicit processing and better explicit memory with direct tasks o task is to say whether the word is old or new with
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