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Visual Knowledge.docx

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Judith Shedden

March 19 , 2013 Psych 2H03: Human Learning and Cognition Visual Knowledge Imagery - other kinds of non-verbal knowledge: odours, sounds, movement, pain, visual, spatial, texture, etc. - imagery: imagine, imagination, simulation of experience, empathy - most work has been done on visual modality - spatial sketch pad is used through imagery - imagery can help us solve problems - example: long division, people are faster at long division if you give them more room to work in their heads Visual Images - experience is kind of like seeing a picture, in your head - some people have more vivid images, others do not use vivid images but ideas or propositions instead - is it really a kind of seeing - individual differences: people differ greatly in their experience - but can we trust people’s self reports of visual imagery  chronometric studies of imagery  mental processes take time, so we can get some information on how people are processing their mental images - Kosslyn (1976):  Asking whether response time can tell us what people are doing  Group 1: form a mental image of a cat  Imagery instructions  Does a cat have a head  Does a cat have claws  People using imagery are faster to respond to does a cat have a head  Group 2: think about a cat  No imagery instructions  Does a cat have a head?  Does a cat have claws?  People not using imagery are faster to respond to does a cat have claws  Depending on the group the time will differ whether or not you are using imagery  Claws are descriptive of a cat  Claws are smaller and are not noticed as much in an image of a cat  The head is larger in the image than the claws  If you’re not forming an image, claws are more salient as a head as more animals have heads - difference between a description and a depiction - depending on mode, different features will be prominent  description – distinctive features, strong associates are prominents (claws)  depiction – large things, things positioned at front are prominent (head) - what did kosslyn show: different information is differently available in different modes Dual-Coding Hypothesis - two codes and two storage systems  information coded and stored in one or both  imagery: pictures, concrete words  verbal: some pictures, concrete words, abstract words - the concrete/abstract dimension: extent to which a concept can be represented by a picture - we use both types of codes - the more concrete something is the easier it is to form an image - you can rate words this way Ratings of Nouns for their Capacity to Arouse an Image - positive correlation between imagery and concreteness - frequency is faster recognition - concrete/abstract dimension is the most important determinant on whether or not imagery can take place - people are much better at remembering pictures than concrete words - better at remembering concrete words than abstract words as we only have the meaning of the abstract word not the image - dual route for concrete words as we have both the image and the verbal code High-Imagery and Low-Imagery Paired Associate Task - have subject remembering word pairs - when they learn word pairs they know that they have to remember them later - one works as a cue - words divided into different conditions:  high-imagery words  low-imagery words: you can form an image, but it’s an individual image with meaning, tighter the link of the image to the abstract word the better, but it is harder to create an image - 4 different kinds of pairs:  H-H  H-L: high imagery is cue for low imagery  L-H  L-L Mean Total Recall as a Function of High (H) and Low (L) imagery values - better at high imagery words than low - when high imagery word is used as cue they were much better than when the low imagery word is used as a cue - high imagery word is better used as a link - high imagery words were better recalled because subjects were using imagery - subjects were not told to use imagery - assume they are using imagery - experiment in which we control whether or not they are using imagery, or asking whether or not subjects use imagery Report whether Imagery, Verbal, or Repetition Strategies were used to Remember - subjects given multiple choice questionnaire: none, simple repetition of the words, verbal (making up a phrase or a rhyme), imagery (used mental image) or other - none and other were picked very rarely - participants reported using imagery the most for the H-H words and least for the L-L words - imagery decreases throughout the different groups - supports the hypothesis that imagery was the effective learning strategy - images are so effective due to the dual coding - word is the coding and image provides second memory code, are both available and can both lead to recall, overlapping - a lot of possible cues - people using imagery did a lot better when the pairs of words were H-H - more pathways to get at that word March 20 , 2013 Conceptual-Propositional Hypothesis (Anderson & Bower) - reaction against the pictures-in-the-head idea - didn’t seem reasonable to assume a memory system that carried around so much information - have to be able to store the image in every possible rotation, context, view, etc. - the information is abstracted, doesn’t matter whether you experience a picture or verbal description, all of those experiences are stored in the same format and that format is propositional (concept and relations between objects) - propositions are predicates, a set of propositions, facts and details stored in your memory - you access the propositional information about a certain word to create the image - how do you explain concrete words are better than abstract words - information stored in the same way for both verbal and visual events  concepts and propositions  concrete words have a richer set of predicates than more abstract words, we have more information as we know what they look like  abstract don’t have as many propositions - argue for similarity between mental images and perceptual objects: when we process images there is a similarity between processing the images and processing real perceptual stimuli - Finke & Pinker 1982:  Pictures of different screens  In this example there is four dots  Dots disappear  And we get an arrow which is pointed in different directions  Task is to say whether the arrow points to a location where there was a dot on the previous screen  Image: if you are remembering the correct location you might have a representation in your head of what screen one looked like  What would we expect to see in reaction time: time it takes to respond depends on the distance between where the arrow points and the dots position  We imagine the dots in the previous locations and scan from the arrow ehad to the position in order to determine whether or not there was a dot  Not simultaneous, we need to scan  TIME TO SCAN IS FULLY DEPENDENT ON THE DISTANCE ACROSS THE IMAGE  Treating the image the same as the stimulus Scanning Spatial Images - demonstrate that a mental image is similar to perception of a real object  image has spatial properties, similar to those of real objects  takes more time to scan large distances than small distances - a fictional map used to study the effect of distances on mental scanning time (Kosslyn, Ball, & Reiser, 1978) - given enough time to analyze the map - imagine the map Visual Images - Kossly, Ball & Reiser (1978) - Memorize map, good enough to draw from memory - “form an image of the map in your mind’s eye, “look” at the well. Imagine a black speck moving from the straw hut. Push the button when it reaches the straw hut.” - Do the same for each of the different pairs of landmarks. End up with scanning times for each of the pairs - Total of 21 different distances - If distance determines scan time then reaction time should be a linear function of the distance between the two locations - Assuming an analogue representation of a map in our minds Scanning Time between all Pairs of Locations on the Imaged Map (Kosslyn, Ball, & Reiser, 1978) - as the distance increased, the time to response increased in a linear function - scanning mental images in the same way that we are scanning real map - we are using analogue not propositional - could only be that subjects know what you want Are Subjects Real Using Mental Images? - subjects might be predicting the response times the experimenter wants  subjects are successful at predicting scanning time for different distances (Mitchell & Richman, 1980) - what about scanning times for stimuli subjects cannot predict?  Subjects could not predict scanning times for objects that were shaped differently (e.g., straight lines versus spirals) yet scanning times varied depending on the shape and scanning distance (Reed, Hock, & Lockhead, 1983)  Using stimuli where you can’t predict the distance, can’t predict the time taken  More complicated  Takes a while  Might not be a good predictor  Subjects could not predict the scanning times for the objects yet when they formed the mental images their scanning times were linearly mapped to scanning time Investigating Spatial Characteristics of Imagery (Kosslyn) - participants who focus on the end of the image take longer to determine whether a feature exists at the other end - focus on the back of the boat then ask something about the flag takes longer than focusing on the front of the boat and asking about the flag as the flag is at the front of the boat Visual Imagery - effects also happen when you ask people to zoom in or zoom out of images – the more zooming you have to do, the longer it takes - participants take longer to judge the appropriateness of a feature of an animal when it forms a smaller image than when it forms a larger image (less detail available) - examining an image at different or same hierarchal levels - times required to determine appropriateness of a property of an animal as a function of the size of the box within the animal was imaged - time required to make the judgment depended on the size of the square as bigger squares had more room to add details - might be double checking that slows you down - with small image there is no evidence, you are less willing to say something is there when you don’t have good mental representation Results - people scan their images at a constant rate – scanning twice as far takes twice as long, scanning three times as far takes three times as long - this is a linear relation - the image you form has some of the properties of a real picture – maintains the spatial layout - analog representation Visual Imagery - so are images laid out the way pictures are? - Not necessarily. The points aren’t necessarily physically close together in the brain, but they are functionally close together - There is functional equivalency Functional-Equiva
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