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PSYCH 2H03 (134)
Lecture

Ch. 2 - Neural Basis.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2H03
Professor
Judith Shedden
Semester
Fall

Description
PNB  2XA3   Chapter  2:  Neural  Basis     Lateral  Inhibition:  The  capacity  of  an  excited  neuron  to  reduce  the  activity  of  its  neighbors  (i.e.  Receptive  fields,  March  Bands   cause  edge  enhancement,  Ice  Cube  model  of  Primary  Visual  Cortex).     Ice  Cube  Model  of  V1   • Blobs  detect  colour   • Orientation  columns   • Columns  for  right  and  left  eye   • V1  has  a  small  receptive  field  that  recognizes  simple  features.  From  V1  to  V2  and  so  on,  the  receptive  field  gets   larger  and  recognizes  more  complex  features     Split-­‐Brain  Patient:   • When  a  split-­‐brain  patient  is  asked  what  he  sees,  the  left  hemisphere  sees  the  fork  on  the  right  side  of  the  screen   and  can  verbalize  that.   • The  right  hemisphere  sees  the  spoon  on  the  screen’s  left  side,  but  cannot  verbalize  it.  However,  if  the  patient   reaches  with  his  left  hand  to  pick  up  the  object,  he  does  select  the  spoon.   • NOTE:  We  are  talking  about  the  left  and  right   visual  field  NOT  the  left  and  right  eye.  Both  eyes  cover  both  visual   fields.     Brodmann  (1909):  Cytoarchitectural  areas  of  the  brain  were  determin ed  using  Nissl  and  Golgi  stains     Structural  Imaging   • CT   o Series  of  x-­‐ray  slices  of  the  brain  are  taken  and  pieced  together   o Quick,  inexpensive,  low  resolution   o Not  often  used  in  research,  more  for  diagnosing  brain  injuries   • MRI   o More  detailed  structural  image   o Powerful  magnetic  fields  are  generated,  which  align  the  hydrogen  atoms  found  throughout  the  brain.  While   atoms  are  aligned,  MRI  can  localize  tissue  precisely.     Functional  Imaging   • PET   o A  radioactive  tracer  of  glucose  (or  oxygen)  is  injected  into  blood.  Radio active  molecules  travel  to  the  b rain   and  are  used  in  metabolic  processes,  which  are  detected  by  the  PET  scan.   o Image  of  brain’s  pattern  of  activity  can  be  constructed.   o Invasive   • fMRI   o Measures  blood  oxygen  dependent  signal  and  uses  many  of  the  same  MRI  princi ples  (but  not  radioactive).   o Able  to  measure  the  use  of  oxygen  in  the  brain  and  operates  under  the  same  basic  assumption  as  PE T  scan   (more  active  areas  of  the  brain  require  more  metabolic  resources).   o Rough  image,  few  second  delay   • EEG   o Rough  image  of  brain’s  overall  activity,  from  populations  of  neurons.   o In  ERP  (event  related  experiment),  the  stimulus  is  presented  to  subject  repeatedly  while  EEG  records.   Averaging  EEG  signal  gives  a  characteristic  signal  (noise  eliminated)   o Precise  temporal  resolution.   o Lots  of  background  noise     Arrays  of  SQUIDS  (superconducting  quantum  interference  devices )   • MEG   o Magnetic  fields  produced  by  electrical  currents.  Same  temporal  resolution  as  EEG,  better  spatia   resolution. o Expensive   • TMS   o Transcranial  magnetic  simulation   o Activate  or  deactivate  processing     Neural  Correlates  of  Interspecies  Perspective  Taking  in  the  Post -­‐Mortem  Atlantic  Salmon:  An  Argument  For  Proper   Multiple  Comparisons  Correction   • Dead  salmon  has  activity  in  the  brain   • Put  salmon  in  fMRI,  and  showed  it  pictures   • Shown  a  series  of  photographs  of  humans  in  different  social  situations.  Each  social  interaction  had  a  specialized   emotion  attached.  The  salmon  had  to
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