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Lecture

Ch. 4 - Attention (2).pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2H03
Professor
Judith Shedden
Semester
Fall

Description
PNB  2XA3   Chapter  4:  Attention  (2)     Task  Specificity:   • Evidence  for  task-­‐specific  resources:   o Shadowing  task  (Allport,  Antonis  &  Reynolds,  1972)   § Shadow  words  presented  in  one  ear  while  simultaneously   memorizing  a  list   § List  presented  to  the  other  ear  (hear  words  +   hear  words  =  difficult)   § List  presented  visually  (hear  words  +  see  words  =  easier)   § Pictures  presented  visually  (hear  words  +  see  pictures  =  easiest)   • Evidence  for  task-­‐general  resources:   o Even  when  tasks  are  very  diff  (i.e.  one  spatial  and  one  verbal),  ↑  the  resource  requirements  of  one  task  past   some  critical  point  will  ↓  efficiency  of  performance  on  one  or  both  tasks.   o Suggests  that  there  is  some  resource  limitation  that  is  general  to  the   2  tasks,  even  though  they  are  very  diff   in  nature.     Spatial  &  Verbal  Components  of  the  Act  of  R ecall  (Brooks,  1968)   • Perform  verbal  task  requiring  verbal  or  spatial  responses   • Perform  spatial  task  requiring  verbal  or  spatial  responses   • Predictions:   o If  SPECIFIC,  tasks  should  interfere  with  each  other  only  if  they   use  the  SAME  set  of  resources  (i.e.  both   verbal,  or  both  spatial).   o If  GENERAL,  all  tasks  should  interfere.   • Experiment  1:   o Memorize:  “The  cat  was  content  in  the  barn  with  the  mice”   o Task  1:  In  the  order  that  the  words  occur  in  the  sentence,  yell  ‘YES’  fo r  each  noun  and  ‘NO’  for  all  other   words.   o Task  2:  Point  to  the  left  for  nouns  and  point  to  the  right  for  all  other  words.   • Experiment  2:   o Task  1:  Form  a  mental  image  of  a  block  letter.  Start  at  t he  corner  indicated  by  the  star  and  follow  the   arrow.  At  each  corner  that  occur s  at  the  extreme  top  or  extreme  bottom,  yell  out  ‘YES’  and   at  every  other   corner,  yell  out  ‘NO’.   o Task  2:  Point  to  the  left  for  all  corners  at  the  extreme  top  or  extreme  bottom,  and  point  to  t he  right  for  all   other  corners.   • Evidence  for  task-­‐specific  mental  resources:   o Verbal  responses  interfere  with  verbal  analysis  but  not  so  much  with  spatial  analysis  (verbal  analysis  and   verbal  response  use  the  same  pool  of  resources) .   o Spatial  responses  interfere  with  spatial  analysis  but  not  so  much  with  verbal  analysis.   • Evidence  for  task-­‐general  mental  resources:   o There  is  a  limit  to  our  performance  in  response  to  high  demands  for  any  2  tasks,  regardless  of  their   similarity.   • Both  kinds  of  constraints  (general/specific)  exist  in  varying  degrees  depending  on  the  tasks  involv ed.     Executive  Control   • Works  to  maintain  the  desired  goal  in  mind   and  serves  to  inhibit  automatic  responses.   • Damage  to  prefrontal  cortex  leads  to   goal  neglect  and  preservation  error  (the  tendency  to  produce  the  same   response  over  and  over,  even  when  it’s  plain  that  the  task  requires  a  change  in  response ).     Cognitive  Tools   • A  tool  is  indivisible   • Can  only  be  used  for  one  task  at  a  time  (i.e.  “response  selection”)   • Divided  attention:  “dividing”  your  focus  b/w  multiple  tasks  at  the  same  time  =  time  sharing  a  tool     à  Cannot  do  the  tasks  simultaneously  (the  selection  of  tasks  is  difficult)   à  The  delay  b/w  tasks  is  the  Psychological  Refractory  Period  (PRP)       Unitary  Tool  Hypothesis   • Task  2  has  to  wait  until  the  Task  1  has  finished  with  the  response  selector   • DRH:  Task  1  &  2  are  about  the  same.  Starting   Task  1  draws  resources  from  Task  2.  Task  2  will  take  longer  than   Task  1   • UTH:  There's  no  resource  sharing!  When   Task  1  is  using  resources,  they  are  not  available  for   Task  2.   • BOTH  predict  that  Task  2  will  take  longer  than  Task  1.  Since  they  both  test  the  same  thing,  let’s  change  it  up  by   degrading  S1  or  S2   • The  results  fit  UTH   o Degrading  Stimulus  1  delays  both  Response  1  and  Response  2   o Degrading  Stimulus  2  does  not  delay  either  Response  1  or  2     Response  Selection  Bottlene ck   • Some  things  we  can  do  simultaneously,  some  we  can’t.  Response  selection  is  something  we  can’t  do  simultaneously.   • Cognitive  tools  is  sometimes  a  better  explanation  than  cognitive  effort.  Not  always  the  case  that  harder=slower,   instead  it  depends  on  where  the  bottleneck  is.     Practice   • A  task  becomes  more  practiced  when  it  requires  fewer  resources  or  attention.   • With  practice,  what
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